& Data Analysis
Protein gel analysis
Keeping a lab notebook
Writing research papers
Dimensions & units
Using figures (graphs)
Examples of graphs
Principles of microscopy
Solutions & dilutions
Fractionation & centrifugation
Radioisotopes and detection
Mitochondrial membranes contain numerous transport systems for the import of metabolites and high energy intermediates, export of ATP which is utilized in the cytosol, and inorganic phosphate, which is returned to the matrix via a phosphate-proton symport that is driven by the chemiosmotic gradient. Thus some of the gradient energy is always used for purposes other than synthesis of ATP.
Mitochondria are exceedingly important
as storage tanks for calcium ions. Calcium ion
concentration is an important second messenger
in cells. It must be precisely con
trolled in various
intracellular compartments, or cellular function
is compromised. Indeed, calcium itself is a mediator
of many toxins. Mitochondria may act as 'sinks'
to buffer the effects of calcium overload.