Recordkeeping, Writing,
& Data Analysis


Microscope studies

Flagella experiment
Laboratory math
Blood fractionation
Gel electrophoresis
Protein gel analysis
Concepts/ theory
Keeping a lab notebook
Writing research papers
Dimensions & units
Using figures (graphs)
Examples of graphs
Experimental error
Representing error
Applying statistics
Principles of microscopy

Solutions & dilutions
Protein assays
Fractionation & centrifugation
Radioisotopes and detection


Mitochondria theory

Mitochondria in vitro

Additional topics


"Other" Mitochondria Functions

Role of mitochondria in processes other than oxidative phosphorylation

Among other processes, mitochondria contain their own independent machinery for protein synthesis, including DNA, messenger and transfer RNAs, and ribosomes. They reproduce by fission in a manner similar to that of bacterial cells. In fact, the seeming independence of mitochondria from the eukaryotic cell's genetic code, as well as the resemblance of mitochondria-associated macromolecules to those of bacteria, are strong evidence for an endosymbiotic origin for the organelles.

Mitochondrial membranes contain numerous transport systems for the import of metabolites and high energy intermediates, export of ATP which is utilized in the cytosol, and inorganic phosphate, which is returned to the matrix via a phosphate-proton symport that is driven by the chemiosmotic gradient. Thus some of the gradient energy is always used for purposes other than synthesis of ATP.

Mitochondria are exceedingly important as storage tanks for calcium ions. Calcium ion concentration is an important second messenger in cells. It must be precisely con trolled in various intracellular compartments, or cellular function is compromised. Indeed, calcium itself is a mediator of many toxins. Mitochondria may act as 'sinks' to buffer the effects of calcium overload.

Copyright and Intended Use
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Created by David R. Caprette (caprette@rice.edu), Rice University 24 Apr 96
Updated 26 May 05