These are neologisms collected by an undergraduate linguistics class at Rice University during the fall of 2003.

A [Top]

context and source: A senior applying for a fellowship stated that he would like to take a year off and enjoy some "abroadness" instead of going straight to graduate school.
apparent meaning: the state of being abroad.
type of word formation: known stem with alternate ending
reason used: This word is simply shorter than that phrase "being overseas for the purpose of studying." I understood exactly what he meant without him using superfluous words.
dictionary entry: abroadness - n. - state of being outside of one's country of residence for the purpose of higher education. Formed from abroad (overseas, usually for the purpose of studying) and -ness ( a noun-forming suffix). I'm going to be really burned out after four years of Rice, so I'm looking forward to a little abroadness.

context and source: "I don't have your homeworks graded yet because I got stuck taking care of administrivia this morning." -- heard from one of my professors last month (November 2003).
composed of: administration 'management' + trivia 'insignificant trifles'
apparent meaning: tedious and mundane organizational and administrative tasks
type of word formation: blending and clipping
reason used: Clever way to describe the menial tasks required for bookkeeping and organization.
dictionary entry: administrivia - n. mundane, repetitive busy work required for general record-keeping. ('Before getting to the day's work, the CEO had to get through the daily administrivia.') [blending and clippin: formed from 'administration' + 'trivia']

context and source: "?the perils of adultolescence?" (The Rice Graduate 24 Sep 2003)
composed of: 'adult' (fully-developed and mature person) + 'adolescence' (the process of growing up)
apparent meaning: moving back in with your parents after graduating from college
type of word formation: blend of 'adult' + 'adolescence'
reason used: The author was trying to accurately name the state of moving back in with one's parents as an adult, especially after college graduation. Adolescence and the years immediately following was the last time many people lived with their parents full-time. By blending 'adult' and 'adolescence,' you get the idea that the person is stuck between the adult world and adolescence.
dictionary entry: Adultolescence, n.
living with one's parents as an adult, esp. after college graduation ('the job market was weak so he opted for adultolescence') [blend of 'adult' + 'adolescence']

context and source: When discussing possible post-graduation jobs, a friend said her experience working at a low-scale magazine in town was not a good one, particularly because they made her write many advertorials (Nov. 28, 2003).
composed of: advertisement + editorial
apparent meaning: What is written when a company pays to have a good story written about them in a publication.
type of word formation: blend
reason used: By adding a hint of advertising to the word about a story, the piece acquires a negative connotation, thus insinuating how journalists often feel about such pieces.
dictionary entry: Advertorial, n.
An article that has been paid for (This story is so positive it's clearly an advertorial.) [new blend, formed from 'advertisement' + 'editorial']

context and source: "Aftsoac that 'x' is not prime??.." (a math friend over IM, 9/15/03)
apparent meaning: Assume for the sake of a contradiction
type of word formation: acronym
reason used: In math proofs, it is common to start a proof by saying "Assume for the sake of a contradiction that?.." and set about proving a proposition. However, my friend truncated this phrase because he got tired of typing the whole thing. We have been using 'aftsoac' quite frequently ever since, even over telephone conversations (we end up making the 't' silent).
dictionary entry: aftsoac
Assume for the sake of a contradiction ("Aftsoac that y is positive") [acronym: assume for the sake of a contradiction]

context and source: "If these lectures have given you any ah-hahs, give yourself a point." (Susan Lieberman, December 2, 2003)
composed of:
apparent meaning: sudden realization
type of word formation: onomatopoeia
reason used: This word uses an expression and connects it with the processes going on in our brain. When we suddenly understand something, we say "ah-hah." An ah-hah, then, is used to capture the state of realization.
dictionary entry: Ah-hah n. A sudden understand or realization, usually after exposure to new or novel information.

Alpha consumer
context and source: "Watch the cool kids, the alpha consumers, today, and you can see what everybody else will be doing a year from now." (Time 8 Sep 2003)
composed of: 'alpha' (something that is first) + 'consumer' (one who buys goods and services)
apparent meaning: one who picks up on trends before they become trends, perhaps creating or fueling the trend; used as a predictor for what will be popular in a few weeks or months
type of word formation: compound of 'alpha' + 'consumer'
reason used: The author was describing companies that profit by predicting trends in consumer goods. One way that they did this was by watching the habits of certain groups of people who tended to be the first to pick up on or even start the trend. These consumers, since they were the 'first,' were given the designation 'alpha.'
dictionary entry: Alpha consumer, n.
one who starts a trend or picks it up very early, often long before the rest of the population, usu. used as a predictor of economic trends ('this pattern was seen among alpha consumers months ago') [compound of 'alpha' + 'consumer']

context and source: The title character in the movie Zoolander can only turn around in one direction; he wishes he could turn both ways, which would make him an ambiturner.
composed of: ambi + turn + er
apparent meaning: able to turn around both ways
type of word formation: compounding + derivation
reason used: Zoolander is full of funny words because the main character is not very intelligent. He has his own way of speaking, and ambiturner fits into his speech.
dictionary entry: Ambiturner, n.
A person who can turn all the way around by going in either way (Only ambiturners can be good models.) [derivation, formed from 'ambi' + 'turn' + '-er']

context and source: "My prof always just calls them Amerindians." Conversation; 10/13/03.
apparent meaning: This word refers to the people who were on the North American continent before the arrival of Europeans. These people are also called Indians, Native Americans, or American Indians. This term was coined to make one of the more politically correct phrases shorter and therefore more convenient.
type of word formation: blend of American and Indian
dictionary entry: Amerindian [blend American + Indian] Noun. Any of the native people of North American.

context and source: "An anti-rail spokesman said he was not surprised by the accident." (, 11/20/03)
composed of: Composed of: 'anti-' (against, opposite) + 'rail' (railroad as a means of transportation) [from 'light-rail']
apparent meaning: opposed to the construction and use of light-rail lines and trains, particularly those of the light-rail system of the city of Houston
type of word formation: compound/clipping
reason used: Light-rail is a relatively recent phenomenon, and in Houston, it has become a controversial means of transportation, because its initial construction and future expansion may or may not cost taxpayers more money. As a result, there are those who are opposed to the city's new light-rail system, and there has arisen a new adjective to describe these people. By adding the oppositional morpheme 'anti-' to 'rail' (a clipped form of 'light-rail'), one arrives at a new word for describing light-rail's opponents.
dictionary entry: anti-rail, adj.
Opposed to the construction and use of light-rail lines and trains, particularly those of the light-rail system of the city of Houston. ('anti-rail lobbyists') [new compound/clipping; formed from 'anti-' + 'rail' (light-rail)]

context and source: 'Anyhoo, so what are you doing this weekend?' (conversation with friend, week of 11/3, 2003)
composed of: 'any' (a relative numerical term) + hoo (non-sensical word)
apparent meaning: an colloquial interjection meaning the same thing as anyways
type of word formation: compound
reason used: My friend was just having a conversation with me when he said this word. I suppose it is a just a colloquial or dialectical way of saying the word 'Anyways.' He was trying to end the current conversation and move on to a new topic, so he used an interjection. I believe this word also might have come about from the slight relaxation of the air passage when moving from the word 'ways' to 'hoo'. It sounds more casual and less deliberate than 'Anyways.'
dictionary entry: anyhoo, interjection.
Another way of saying the word 'anyways'; and so moving on.. ('Anyhoo, what did you do today?') [compound; formed from 'any' + 'hoo' (which is not a really a word, but more of a sound)]

context and source: "It appetizes him." (Conversation with lab partner, 9/30/03)
composed of: ad-/ap-' (to, toward) + 'pet' (seek) + '-ize' (V)
apparent meaning: to be appealing to (the appetite of), to make hungry, to whet the appetite of
type of word formation: back formation
reason used: The word 'appetizing' probably came from the word 'appetite,' with the final consonant changing before the addition of the present participle suffix '-ing.' 'Appetizing' means 'appealing to the appetite,' but its ending likely led some to believe that the adjective had been formed from a verb ending with the morpheme '-ize.' Thus, the word 'appetize' was coined by back formation, and it now seems to be used relatively frequently. Its meaning is consistent with that of 'appetize,' its "adjectival form."
dictionary entry: appetize, v.
To be appealing to (the appetite of), to make hungry, to whet the appetite of. ('a savory smell that appetizes someone') [new back formation; formed from 'appetizing' - '-ing']

context and source: "Over to the left is Anderson Hall, home of all of Rice's Archis" O-week advisor Aug 2003
apparent meaning: architecture student
type of word formation: clipping
reason used: architecture student is a long phrase and when it is said often in the college environment of Rice it has been clipped
dictionary entry: Archi, n. an architecture student [clipping: architecture]

context and source: "It's not funny, guys, I might have ass-flowers!" (a friend, speaking of her GI problems 11/02)
apparent meaning: there is only 1 thing that ass-flowers can possibly mean- hemorrhoids.
type of word formation: analogy
reason used: a semi-vulgar yet humorous way of referring to a serious problem. No reason other than sounding desperate and entertaining at the same time.
dictionary entry: Ass-flowers, n.
Hemorroids [derived by analogy]

context and source: "The car doors lock automagically when you go over a certain speed." Conversation; 10/9/03.
apparent meaning: This word describes actions that happen automatically, but also seem to happen magically. The word may be used when the speaker does not understand the process by which the action occurs. It can also be used when the speaker would like for the audience to take such an action for granted, as he or she does not want to explain how the action occurs. Automagic events are often directed by computers or machines. This neologism was coined to describe actions which take place so much on their own, they seem to be magic.
type of word formation: blend of automatic and magic
dictionary entry: automagically [blend automatic + magic + al ADJ + ly ADV] Adverb.Describing an action which occurs automatically in a mysterious or magical way, especially when performed by a computer or machine.

context and source: Wired described a new study in the field of creating 3-D games without the use of 3-D glasses as autostereographics.
composed of:
apparent meaning: a new branch of technology dealing with how things look on a screen.
type of word formation: compounding
reason used: To convey each part of this new study, it was necessary to draw from different concepts, and therefore different words and morphemes, to put a proper name to it. Auto refers to self, meaning the screen can provide 3-D images without outside aid, stereo refers to sound, which is always a concern with computer programs, and graphics refer to written and drawn aspects of a program that creates the images we see.
dictionary entry: autostereographics - n. - the field of computer technology that deals with the appearance of images on the screen. The study of autostereographics will revolutionize the way man interacts with machine.

context and source: "These obviously and very factually prove that a good ninety-nine percent of my college stories are actually about college, that they have a maximum possible amount of the commonly referred to formula unit of 'awesome-itude', and that bullfighters are amazing."
composed of: 'awesome' (very cool, outstanding) + 'magnitude' (great in size)
apparent meaning: incredibly outstanding, nothing could be better.
type of word formation: blend
reason used: The writer was talking about how great his college stories are. He wanted to express that his stories went beyond awesome. Thus he created a blend between awesome and magnitude, giving awesome an extra level.
dictionary entry: awesome-itude n.
extremely outstanding and awe inspiring. ('formula unit of awesome-itude') [new blend; formed from 'awesome' + 'magnitude']

B [Top]

context and source: "Rick is getting more bacheloric as the years go by." (Katie Wilde, October 8, 2003)
apparent meaning: having the characteristics of a bachelor
type of word formation: affixation
reason used: This word allows the speaker to succinctly describe one's proclivity towards a single life. It eliminates the necessity to expound on their life style by using a modified form of a word (bachelor), the meaning of which most people are familiar with.
dictionary entry: Bacheloric adj. Having and embracing the characteristics of being unmarried.

context and source: 'Bada-bing, I've got it' (television commercial)
apparent meaning: It seems to be a joyful expression showing achievement or attainment of some personal goal. The use of similar phonemes, 'ba' and 'da' makes the phrase catchy and fun to say.
type of word formation: Compound
reason used: A speaker would use this term as a substitution for plain words like 'yeah' and 'yes'. It is a phrase that people usually say out loud, but to themselves. This term is similar to the out-dated phrase 'cha-ching' which had the same meaning.
dictionary entry: bada-bing, n. An expression of satisfaction for an accomplishment, or something superfluous that an individual desires.

context and source: Overheard comments at tennis tournaments similar to the effect of "Yeah, I got bageled by the number one seed in the tournament in about 30 minutes."
composed of: name of common circular pastry
apparent meaning: to be held scoreless
type of word formation: zero-derivation
reason used: Most tennis tournaments are held over the course of a weekend and require players to play multiple matches in a day. At tournaments bagels are commonly eaten by players because they are as a quick, long-lasting energy food that won't upset their stomachs, which is important when having to play multiple times. Because of this, tennis players are familiar with bagels, and their circular shape lend themselves readily to the analogy of getting held scoreless, or zeroed, or bageled.
dictionary entry: bagel - v. to hold an opponent to a score of zero, especially in a game or competition. ('The top seed in the tournament easily bageled his first round opponent.') [zero-derivation; formed from the noun 'bagel' describing the pastry]

ball around
context and source: "What are you up to? Just balling around?" in conversation with S. F., 9-26-03.
composed of: "ball" (spherical object) + "around" (in proximity to or throughout a certain locale)
apparent meaning: to hang out, be unproductive
type of word formation: semantic shift (possibly metaphor) and zero derivation
reason used: The origin of the phrase seems a bit obscure. Possible reasons include: 1) the phrase evokes mental imagery of a ball rolling around aimlessly; 2) the other ways of communicating the same message seem old and overused; 3) this "hanging out" time was spent playing baseball, basketball, or the like at the time of the phrase's coining, and was later extended to other activities.
dictionary entry: ball around, v.
To spend time in no particularly useful pursuit. ("What have you been up to? Balling around as usual?") [New formation by zero derivation and semantic change from "ball" + "around."]

context and source: "That's what you call a baller." (Keith Clayton, October 26th, 2003)
composed of: 'ball' (ballplayer) + '-er' (N)
apparent meaning: A guy who usually gains fame and wealth as well as women through success sports.
type of word formation: Clipping (Ballplayer)
reason used: Professional basketball players (many, not necessarily all) have the reputation for being millionaires and consequently using this money to attract women, whether it is prostitutes or 'fans.' This stereotype led to the clipping of ballplayer to form the neologism baller to refer to this type of player. Now, a baller can refer to any ballplayer that has significant talent and some sort of reputation with women.
dictionary entry: Baller
n. Ballplayer, someone who is good at playing basketball, and has moved up to earning a lot of money and getting a lot of girls from that. [Formed from the clipping of ballplayer]

Conversation with Sid freshman, 9/03. "?I'm going to go play basketball with my professor. He's such a baller."
A term for an indisputably hip, cool person. I think it is taken from the expression "having guts" or "balls", meaning a certain amount of brevity and strength. It has obviously been extended to mean somebody that perhaps is not afraid to step out of their normal, conventional boundaries. I've also heard "that's ballin'" for something that is cool, unexpected.
This is almost a back formation from a more familiar phrase, "he's got balls", or could just be made-up with no apparent connection.
Used to present another colorful, descriptive way of saying that something is cool (there are similarly related words further down on this list). It definitely falls into the category of slang, and I think is used by a certain 'in-group' of people.
baller, n. ballin', adj.
Refers to person who is great, excellent, hip. ["Ball" + "-er" (characterized by)].

context and source: "That guy from Brown is like the ultimate baller." - Martel Sophomore Trey Smith 11-3-03
composed of: 'ball' + '-er' (one who)
apparent meaning: someone is incredibly good at something.
type of word formation: analogy
reason used: the speaker wanted to convey how good one of the intramural basketball players on the Brown team was.
dictionary entry: Baller; n.
someone who his extremely good at basketball.

context and source: "He's a baller," Spanish study group participant, 10-8-03.
composed of: "basket" (a type of container) + "ball" (round toy) + "-er" (noun suffix), minus "basket"
apparent meaning: a person skilled in a particular area.
type of word formation: derivation followed by clipping
reason used: The original form, "basketballer," simply meant "a particularly talented basketball player," and was probably coined because a need was felt for a word with this definition. The word was probably then shortened for convenience's sake, and came to be applied to a wider variety of talented individuals.
dictionary entry: " baller, n.
A person who is particularly skilled in a certain sport, academic area, etc. ("He's a real baller when it comes to chemistry.") [new derivation and clipping, formed from "basketball" + "-er" minus "ball."]

context and source: "I shouldn't be the MVP, I should be the MBP: the Most Ballinest Player." - Suitemate Alec Young 11-3-03
composed of: 'ball' + 'ing' (participating in the act of) + '-est' (most).
apparent meaning: the best player.
type of word formation: analogy
reason used: the speaker wanted to be silly or comical and use a word that would be used in the African American or hip hop community.
dictionary entry: Ballinest; adj.
the best basketball player.

context and source: "Are you balling at the gym tonight?" -asked by member of freshman basketball team, early November.
composed of: "ball" + "-ing" (verb suffix)
apparent meaning:Playing basketball
type of word formation: Analogy
reason used: This is yet another case of a verb suffix being added to a common noun to signify the action associated with that noun. In this case, there appears to have been some clipping as well; the original term may have been "basketballing," but it has been shortened to "balling." This word is often used among those who play basketball often; it may be considered a slang word in that it helps create an "in" group among these players.
dictionary entry: Balling, v.
A term used for playing basketball; shortened from "basketballing"

context and source: "?and then you've got Venus over there with its bassackwards rotation." - Dr. Pat Reiff from Astronomy 202 11-24-03
composed of: 'ass' (as in buttocks) + 'backwards'
apparent meaning: something exceedingly backwards.
type of word formation: compounding and blending
reason used: Dr. Reiff wanted to illustrate how different or backwards Venus' rotation was. Because one's ass is located in the back, this word helps illustrate how extremely backwardness of something.
dictionary entry: Bassackwards, adj.
a word used to describe something that is completely and utterly backwards.

context and source: "I wouldn't want to go out with her; she's beat," D. from Spanish 301 study group, 10-8-03
composed of: beat (verb meaning to physically abuse/assault)
apparent meaning: ugly
type of word formation: zero derivation/semantic change
reason used: "beat" as an adjective is probably related to "beat" as a verb, based on the inference that a person who has been "beaten" has been physically disfigured. The type of zero derivation employed, which sounds as if it is made by omitting the inflectional ending "-en," has a tough guy/ghetto feel to it, an "in" sound for young Americans.
dictionary entry: beat, adj. unattractive, especially referring to a female ("Nobody wants to a date with a beat girl like that"). [new word formation by zero derivation and semantic change, from "beat" (v.)]

context and source: "That cake is totally beaulicious, I'd eat half of it right now" (in La Madeleine's, looking at the desserts 12/01/03)
apparent meaning: this interesting adjective is trying to appeal to two senses, that of vision and taste. The cake under question was both beautiful and very promising in terms of taste.
type of word formation: blend of 'beautiful' and 'delicious'
reason used: to capture and express two feelings with one meaningful colorful word.
dictionary entry: Beaulicious, adj.
Pleasing for both the eyes and the mouth; both aesthetically pleasing and tasty ('what a beaulicious wedding cake') [A blend, formed from 'beautiful' and 'delicious']

Bed-night snack
context and source: "I want chocolate for a bed-night snack."
apparent meaning: a midnight snack eaten in bed or perhaps a snack eaten at bedtime
type of word formation: blend of bed and midnight snack
reason used: to use a non-cliché form of midnight snack
dictionary entry: Bed-night Snack, n. a late night snack eaten in bed [blend: bed and midnight snack

context and source: "Some people have beerios for breakfast the morning of Beer Bike." (conversation with Jones sophomore 24 Oct 2003)
composed of: 'beer' (alcoholic beverage) + 'cheerios' (type of cereal, commonly eaten for breakfast)
apparent meaning: cereal topped with beer instead of milk
type of word formation: blend of 'beer' + 'cheerios'
reason used: This not uncommon breakfast food on the morning of Beer Bike needed a name. The cereal used does not necessarily need to be Cheerios (which is a certain brand of cereal) but that name was used because it made a good blend with 'beer.'
dictionary entry: Beerios, n.
cereal topped with beer instead of milk ('I had beerios for breakfast') [blend of 'beer' + 'cheerios']

context and source: Something to the effect of: "Was the Bennifer wedding called off due to Ben's wild night in Canada? Stay tuned?" In all manner of society newspaper sections and magazines, on MTV and VH1 all throughout 2003
composed of: Ben (for Ben Affleck) + Jennifer (for Jennifer Lopez)
apparent meaning: Noun succinctly referring to the superstar relationship and engagement between and movie stars Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez
type of word formation: blending and clipping
reason used: The name is used as a collective term describing not just the relationship but also the entire media circus and pop-culture fixation surrounding their betrothal. Bennifer sort of has the connotations of the name of a single mythical two-headed entity (monster).
dictionary entry: Bennifer - n. The relationship between and engagement of moviestar supercouple Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez and the subsequent pop-culture fixation and hype surrounding their romantic escapades. ('Bennifer was spotted in the front row of the Red Sox game this afternoon') [blend; formed from 'Ben' + 'Jennifer']

context and source: Context and source: "The accident left her bewrecked of her car." Suitemate, October 19, 2003.
apparent meaning: Deprived of something, in this case an automobile. Could possibly be used in situations involving other accidents.
type of word formation: blend
reason used:The speaker blended bereft and wrecked in a clever way-after a bad accident people usually are "deprived of" their cars. But, in this case, the similar sound ending made it especially possible to put these two words together.
dictionary entry: Bewrecked: v. to be without, or deprived of, a thing lost in a wreck or accident. [a blend of bereft and wrecked]

Online conversation with Whitman College freshman, 11/03. "….I've got work to do at the bib."
An apparent shortening of the French word for library: bibliotheque.
This formation is a clipping, from 'bibliotheque' to 'bib', it has also transcended languages, from French to English.
I think clipping is especially prominent among groups of young people, colleges and universities. Whenever there are words that people repeat often, the words tend to gain names that are more fun to say (for instance, when people ask me what my major is, I say I am a 'musi' not a music major) or facilitate speech better ('bib' is certainly shorter to say than 'library' or 'bibliotheque') or they try to evoke a cooler, more entertaining image (saying that you're going to the 'bib' is more exciting than saying you're going to the 'library'). Since I have not heard the word 'bib' outside of this particular instance, I suspect it may be jargon for a specific group of people (i.e. undergrads at Whitman College).
bib, n.
Abbreviation for library, [Fr bibliotheque].

context and source: " 'The whole focus was to contribute to the biodefense agenda of the country.'" (Mark Buller, head of University of St. Louis research team, quoted on, 10/31/03)
composed of: 'bio' (life) + 'defend/defens' (ward off, drive away, defend, protect)
apparent meaning: (of or pertaining to) the military, governmental, and industrial management of the research and development of weapons, strategies, and other means of defending against biological weapons and warfare
type of word formation: compound
reason used: Even in ancient times, there were instances of biological warfare, but only recently have warring nations been able to produce and utilize biological weapons (like viruses, bacteria, and chemicals that can disrupt various bodily functions) on a large scale. These developments led to the formation of new terms, like 'bioweapon' and 'biological warfare.' Naturally, because there were weapons of this kind, there would also arise defenses against them, and these defenses (for the United States at least) had to be regulated, so they were to be the business of those concerned with the 'biodefense' of the country. There may have been a longer term, such as 'biological defense,' for this idea, but the single-word neologism does seem to facilitate communication.
dictionary entry: biodefense, n.
The military, governmental, and industrial management of the research and development of weapons, strategies, and other means of defending against biological weapons and warfare. ('much money has gone into the biodefense of this country') [new compound; formed from 'bio' + 'defense']
biodefense, adj.
Of or pertaining to biodefense. ('the biodefense budget of the Unites States') [new compound; formed from 'bio' + 'defense']

context and source: 'Let's stop this bitchery!' (a friend after complaining and crying about someone, 10/26/03)
composed of: 'bitch' and '-ery' (N)
apparent meaning: whining, complaining, and a generally negative and unpleasant conversation
type of word formation: derivation
reason used: After expressing the extent of her negative emotional state, the author of the word was also not pleased with having just had another whining session, so she referred to her own conversation in a derogatory manner, at the same time trying to be facetious at the situation. The result was this new word, incorporating both the underlying meaning and humor.
dictionary entry: Bitchery, n.
A set of generally negative expressions full of whining and complaining. ('let's stop this bitchery and go do something fun) [new derivation from 'bitch' and 'ery']

context and source: A roommate said she was "bizarred" by the high-level of activity on campus one night. (Nov. 22, 2003)
composed of: bizarre + -ed
apparent meaning: in a state of finding something bizarre
type of word formation: derivation
reason used: She found it odd and could not find a word to describe that feeling. However, everyone involved in the conversation understood that she found the instance bizarre when she said she was bizarred.
dictionary entry: Bizarred, adj.
To be in the state of having found something to be bizarre. (I feel so bizarred after watching that odd movie.) [Derivation, formed from 'bizarre' + '-ed']

context and source: "Often you hear of how certain groups have been discriminated against, like blacksploitation for example?" -comment heard in class, week of 11/3
composed of: "black" (describing a certain race) and "exploit" (to take unfair advantage of) + "-ion" (Noun-forming suffix)
apparent meaning: A noun describing the experiences suffered by African-Americans during periods of discrimination and exploitation by others, most notably whites.
type of word formation: blending
reason used: This word seems to be a convenient way of summarizing the sufferings of African-Americans without using the awkward phrase "exploitation of black people by others." The word also lends itself to a blending derivation because of the "ks" sound at the end of "blacks" and the beginning of "exploit." Combining these two sounds into one is very convenient and does not require moving the tongue to create a separate sound.
dictionary entry: blacksploitation, n.
The systematic discrimination against and taking advantage of African-Americans, especially by whites. [new derivation, formed from "blacks" + "exploit" + "ion"]

context and source: Context and source: "J. Lo enjoys showing off her bling bling from Ben." People Magazine. October 2, 2003.
apparent meaning: Large diamonds or other valuable gems
type of word formation: onomatopoeia ("bling" describes the reflection of light off of a facet of a diamond)
reason used: This word may have been used to highlight the extravagance of Jennifer's diamond and to cater to the audience of the informal, gossipy magazine (usually young to middle-aged women)
dictionary entry: Bling: n. extravagant and showy jewelry, especially diamonds, used as a status symbol.

context and source: "Man, look at all of that bling! He's definitely is blinging it!" -comments similar to this heard while watching MTV over the past year, especially whe R&B and rap was on.
composed of: no identifiable morphemes
apparent meaning: As a noun, bling (or bling-bling) is large, gaudy, excessively shiny and usually stone-encrusted jewelry. To bling is to be wearing this kind of jewelry
type of word formation: slang
reason used: this expression refers to the way that this kind of jewelry catches light and really makes the jewelry sparkle. It is in a way a kind of sound symbolism and synesthesia in that it attributes a sound effect to a visual stimulus. The sharp reflection of light off of the jewelry is similar to the sharp, high pitched sound heard when metal is bounced off of metal that produces a 'blinging' sound.
dictionary entry: bling - 1. n. Large, very shiny and usually stone-encrusted jewelry typically worn ostentatiously. ('The rap stars walked down the red carpet covered in bling.') 2. v. to wear such jewelry ('The rap stars were blinging it as they walked down the red carpet.') [slang; no identifiable morphemes]

context and source: 'He's the king of bling-bling.' (Electronic Gaming Monthly October Issue, 2003)
composed of: 'bling' + 'bling'
apparent meaning: shiny metal trinkets, necklaces; objects of luxury
type of word formation: sound symbolism
reason used: This magazine article had a humorous picture of a game character with gold chains and rings. I have also heard this word phrase used on MTV and other places to describe excessive gold and metal objects worn by celebrities, rappers, and pimps. I think it came about from the sound all the metal makes clanging around a person's neck, arms, hands, etc.
dictionary entry: bling-bling, n.
luxury items like gold rings and chains that are used to show off how cool and stylish one is ('man, he's wearin' a lot of bling-bling') [sound symbolism; arising from 'bling' + 'bling']

context and source: 'Oh, I need to update my online blog.' (overheard from suitemate, week of 9/22, 2003)
composed of: 'web' (an interconnection of many things) + 'log' (an account of many objects)
apparent meaning: an online journal or diary where people can say whatever they feel like
type of word formation: clipping a compound
reason used: My suitemate was commenting on how he had not updated his journal that is posted on the internet. 'Blog' is a technological term that is a clipping of the word 'weblog.' I suppose people use blog instead because it is only one syllable and easier to say quickly than 'weblog.' This word can also be zero derived to form the verb form blog, meaning to write things in your online journal. 'to blog'
dictionary entry: blog, n,v. 1. an online journal or diary, that usually wanders from subject to subject post entries in an online journal or diary ('I need to blog in my blog') [clipping a compound; arising from 'web' + 'log' minus 'we']

context and source: Members of different online journal communities describe the collection of their entries as their blog.
apparent meaning: the abbreviation of weblog (web + log).
type of word formation: compounding, then abbreviation
reason used: Blog is the second phonetic syllable of weblog, and it's usually the second syllable and whatever follows that gets used in an abbreviation.
dictionary entry: blog - n. - a collection of online journal entries. It is bad netiquette to put other people's names in your blog

context and source: "We'll count on bloggers and those who know and appreciate online journals to help us spot trends, share tips and make connections." (, 9/29/03)
composed of: 'blog' (clipping of weblog, an internet journal) + '-er' (N, doer, performer of a certain action, one associated or involved with)
apparent meaning: a person who maintains, frequents, actively searches for, or is otherwise familiar with online journals
type of word formation: compound
reason used: Because there had previously been no word referring to those who maintained, frequented, or actively searched for blogs, someone evidently coined this new word by adding the well-known suffix '-er' to the end of 'blog' (with the duplication of the final consonant of the root in the spelling of the neologism). It is not clear what particular meaning this word had when it first came into being (or if it ever had only one specific meaning at all), but it now has several different uses.
dictionary entry:blogger, n.
A person who maintains, frequents, actively searches for, or is otherwise familiar with online journals. ('the blogspotting tips of bloggers') [new compound; formed from 'blog' + '-er']

context and source: "Three years ago, Adam Kalsey set up a Web log to share his thoughts about online business and the digital revolution. Like countless other "bloggers," he lets his readers post comments on his entries." (Houston Chronicle, Nov. 16, 2003).
composed of: Web + log + er
apparent meaning: One who posts diary entries about themselves online
type of word formation: blend + derivation
reason used: Blog has become a common word in internet lingo, and blogger, one who blogs, is the next reasonable step as it is just a derivation.
dictionary entry: blogger, n.
a person who posts internet diaries (She spends a lot of time reading the accounts of other bloggers.) [a derived blend; formed from 'Web' + 'log' + 'er']

context and source: "As with any new territory, much is yet to be discovered about the dynamics and culture of the blogosphere, but mainstream media are quickly tuning in." (, 9/29/03)
composed of: 'blog' (clipping of weblog, an internet journal) + 'o' (linker) + 'sphere' (area of power, control, influence; domain)
apparent meaning: the world or domain of blogs (weblogs) and bloggers (those who maintain or frequent blogs)
type of word formation: compound
reason used: Because of the recent development of blogs, there was no word referring to the world of blogs and bloggers, so this writer and possibly others before him chose to create a new word for this emerging idea by attaching the morpheme 'sphere' to 'blog,' and an 'o' was added to interrupt the consonant sequence created by the combination of the two roots.
dictionary entry: blogosphere, n.
The area or domain (especially on the internet) of influence of online journals and of those who maintain and/or frequent them. ('the culture of the blogosphere') [new compound; formed from 'blog' + 'o' + 'sphere']

context and source: "Send your blogspotting tips." (, 9/29/03)
composed of: 'blog' (clipping of weblog, an internet journal) + 'spot' (to detect, discern, or situate) + '-ing' (V, A, N, present participle)
apparent meaning: the act of looking for blogs (weblogs), especially those with content of special interest
type of word formation: compound
reason used: Because of the recent emergence of blogs, there was no single word referring to the active search for blogs, so someone apparently thought that the present participle of the verb 'spot' would be an appropriate morpheme to add onto the word 'blog' to create this new word. The 'ing' is a present participle ending, which requires that the preceding verb double its final consonant if the high nature of the vowel is to be retained. Present participle forms can also be used as nouns and adjectives.
dictionary entry: blogspotting, n.
The act of searching (on the internet) for online journals, especially those with content of special interest. ('tips for blogspotting') [new compound; formed from 'blog' + 'spot' + '-ing']
blogspotting, adj.
Of or pertaining to blogspotting.

context and source: " "siamac, her bofro who went with her, thinks that it is corruption with the police dept as well" (G. C-S, IM conversation, 10-28-03.)
composed of: "boyfriend" (a male partner in a romantic relationship.)
apparent meaning: boyfriend
type of word formation: clipping/rhyming compound
reason used: The original version of the word ("boyfriend") probably came to be seen as too cumbersome; short, rhyming phrases are easy on the ear and roll off the tongue.
dictionary entry: " bofro, n.
boyfriend ("She just broke up with her bofro of seven years.") [New word by clipping and rhyming compounding from "boyfriend."]

context and source: My scientifically nerdy roommate uses this term to break down bogus activities or occurrences.
apparent meaning: smallest piece of a bogus event.
type of word formation: blending (bogus + proton)
reason used: Scientifically speaking, the smallest particles are neutrons and protons and electrons. So when analyzing something bogus piece by piece, it's helpful to have something to call each component of what is bogus. And the word bogon itself sounds a little bogus and that accentuates the meaning.
dictionary entry: bogon - n. - the smallest discernible part of a bogus occurrence. The fact that some polls in the country closed early is just one bogon of the whole 2000 election fiasco.

Bootie called
context and source: 'She was bootie called last night' (Spike television network, Summer 2003)
apparent meaning: Being asked to do a 'bootie call' i.e. sexual favor. Used to talk about a recent action in which a person, almost always a woman, is requested by a man for pleasure. The '-ed' changes the noun form into a verb form.
type of word formation: Derivation
reason used: To gossip about a woman's actions and sexual behavior.
dictionary entry: bootie called, v. Called upon to give intimate pleasure on demand.

context and source: While insulting the new CD of Jennifer Lopez, a deejay described her effort as "straight booty," and it was clear that he did not mean that in reference to her figure.
apparent meaning: very bad or poor in quality to the point that one is confused at how something could be so terrible.
type of word formation: zero derivation, slang
reason used: Formal terms rarely convey the emotion behind someone's opinion. Such an informal, coarse word emphasizes the comtempt for whatever is being described. There could also be a correlation between someone making an ass of himself and calling the result "booty."
dictionary entry: booty - adj. - of extremely poor quality, inspiring bewilderment because of its terribleness. Formed from an existing word that is now to be used as a slang term. Next week is going to be so booty; I have 3 exams in 2 days!

Someone who has nice curves or an attractive rear end.
(title of Destiny's Child pop single "Bootylicious")
A blending of booty + delicious.
Ex: "My body is too bootylicious for you, babe."
Destiny's Child "Bootylicious" release date: 7/17/2001.

"My body's too bootylicious for you, babe."
Lyrics from a song by artist Beyonce - 2003
Definition - hot, sexy, etc.

(V, N)
To bully, or a bully.
As heard by a senior girl at Sid Richardson college.
A compound of boss + hog.
Ex: "The car behind me almost rear-ended me because it was bosshogging me on the freeway."
This word began appearing in rap songs during 2001.

context and source: "Hey, we're late. You guys ready to bounce?" -- expression used often by my previous roommate last year and now frequently by me
composed of: bounce 'rebound of an object off a surface'
apparent meaning: to leave, to go
type of word formation: slang
reason used: Bounce may have been first used when doing something involving going from place to place like a bouncing ball, such as barhopping. Then it probably just came to mean to leave from the place you are at.
dictionary entry: bounce - v. To go from or leave one's current location. ('When the party started to die down, we decided to bounce.') [slang; formed from 'bounce']

adj. capable of being broken down into smaller parts or pieces. Derivation of an adjective from the verb phrase "break down" by adding the adjective-forming suffix "-able" meaning "capable of". It may also be formed by an analogy with words like "wearable" and "applicable". Context and source: "While some words are break-downable, the others?"

context and source: 'I'll BRB' (Posted message on instant messenger, 1998)
apparent meaning: An abbreviation that lets someone know what you are doing, i.e. that you will 'be right back', or return.
type of word formation: Acronym
reason used: Used mainly for communication between friends. BRB is a quick way to let someone know that you will be coming back. It is used in both spoken and written language.
dictionary entry: BRB, adv. Intended to return and resume an activity or conversation.

adj. bresilience, n.
I think I coined this word last year, early 2003? It has lived through my Portland friends. "What a bresilient idea…."
I think the meaning of this word varies a lot. It is meant to be an adjective describing something that is both brilliant and resilient. It suggests something cool (another slang word?), but more transient, sophisticated. When I made up this word, I used it in writing much more often than I spoke it out loud.
This word is a blend between two preexisting words in English: brilliant + resilient, resulting in a literal meaning that is something like 'bright and strong'. There is a bit of a rhyming scheme going on as well; this word would not work if 'brilliant' and resilient' didn't sound alike when spoken. Both words seem to roll off the tip of the tongue.
bresilient, adj.
Describing something that is great, wonderful, happy, healthy. [blend using brilliant + resilient].

context and source: "She's a bridezilla." (Watching TV show, 10/26/03)
composed of: 'bride' (woman about to be married) + 'Godzilla' (gargantuan fictional Japanese reptile)
apparent meaning: a bride who is extremely spoiled and domineering and who must have her way (as to the details of her own wedding), even to the last, most minute detail
type of word formation: blend
reason used: Because there has previously been no single word to describe brides who were exceptionally spoiled, meticulous, and bossy, someone (perhaps a writer for the television show, but probably somebody who had coined the word beforehand) apparently thought it humorously appropriate that such a bride be called a 'bridezilla.' This new word is a blend of 'bride' and the name of a fictional Japanese monster, Godzilla, who has been the title character of many films. The name 'Godzilla' is said to be the Americanized form of the original Japanese 'Gojira,' whose origin is dubious.
dictionary entry: bridezilla, n.
A woman (about to be married) who is exceptionally spoiled, meticulous, and domineering, especially about the details (however minute) of her own wedding. ('the bridezilla maintained that her bridesmaids' shoes had to be dyed to the exact color of their dresses') [new blend; formed from 'bride' + 'Godzilla']

context and source: "Breaking up is much more efficient than bridorexia." (Watching TV show, 10/26/03)
composed of: 'bride' (woman about to be married) + 'anorexia' (chronic eating disorder characterized by lack of and appetite and eating) ['a-/an-' (without) + 'orexis' (appetite) + '-a' (N)]
apparent meaning: the bride's regimen of restricted diet and/or exercise for the purpose of weight loss during the time period leading up to her wedding day, undertaken especially for the purpose of fitting into her wedding dress
type of word formation: blend
reason used: Because there has previously been no term describing some brides' forced diet and/or exercise to fit into her wedding dress (and to look better than any other females present, especially the bridesmaids) on her wedding day, a writer for this television series (or some other writer before him or her) coined this new formation, using the harsh imagery of the disorder anorexia nervosa, in order to describe this phenomenon in a single word.
dictionary entry: bridorexia, n.
The regimen (of a woman to be married) of restricted diet and/or exercise, undertaken in order to lose weight during the time period leading up to her wedding day, especially to fit into her wedding dress. ('losing weight by bridorexia') [new blend; formed from 'bride' + 'anorexia']

context and source: "Look at her, she's such a britney" (a conversation between two girl friends in a coffee shop regarding a young woman 11/30)
apparent meaning: the girl in question dressed in a very liberal fashion (not wearing much at all), and looked rather sexually promiscuous. This word is referring to the singer Britney Spears, and her dressing habits.
type of word formation: analogy
reason used: to be clever, and emphasize the specific kind of dress, stance, and look that the girl in the coffee shop had.
dictionary entry: Britney, n.
A young woman of dubious moral integrity, mostly expressing herself through her minimal clothing and excessive makeup ('so many high school girls are britneys these days') [An analogy]

context and source: "At times, in fact, you feel like you're watching cookie-cutter action sequences with overcooked buddy-movie dialogue." (, 11/05/03)
composed of: 'buddy' (good friend, partner) + 'movie' (a sequence of photographs projected onto a screen with sufficient rapidity as to create the illusion of continuous motion) ['mov/mot' (move) + '-ie' (diminutive)] [clipping and alteration of 'moving picture']
apparent meaning: of or pertaining to a movie (involving friendship) that one watches with a good friend (a feel-good movie)
type of word formation: zero derivation
reason used: For a long time, there have been movies that make people feel good about themselves, about others, and about the world in general. These are called 'feel-good movies.' More specifically, films that deal with the bond of friendship have been dubbed 'buddy-movies,' because people go to see them with their buddies. These movies may also have been so named because they most probably have buddies as their main characters. Because this word has come into everyday usage, it is not surprising that some have zero-derived it into an adjective for describing things that are "buddy-movie-like."
dictionary entry: buddy-movie, adj.
Of or pertaining to a movie (involving friendship) that one watches with a good friend (a feel-good movie). ('the friends seemed to be having a buddy-movie conversation') [new zero derivation; formed from 'buddy-movie, n.']

context and source: "The Knighthood of Buh" (University of Texas organization, University of Texas website 10 Sep 2003)
apparent meaning: violently funny, cool in an unorthodox way
type of word formation: sound symbolism (sound made when fist is thumped against chest)
reason used: The organization exists to provide members a place to practice comedy and bend social norms. The gesture of your fist hitting your chest is often associated with affirming your existence and making your mark, much as the members of this organization do. So the gesture, and the sound that accompanies it, became a symbol for the group, and the word for the sound came to stand for how the group members perceive themselves.
dictionary entry: Buh, adj.
Violently funny, cool in an unorthodox way ('the members were all buh') [sound symbolism for sound fist makes upon striking chest]

context and source: "You think movies cause violence? That's bunk!" (Michael Gruits, August 29, 2003).
apparent meaning: false, garbage
type of word formation: clipping
reason used: This is probably a clipping of bunkum: "empty talk." It is used in a more derogatory sense. It seems to conjure up cuss words.
dictionary entry: Bunk n. A derogatory term for lies or rubbish.

v. to put one bed on top of another or to make a bunk bed. Zero derivation from the noun "bunk (bed)". Context and source: "Why don't we bunk the bed so that we can have more room?" (In a conversation with my roommate on 9/20/2003)

context and source: "?his Bunyanesque performances [on the basketball court]?" -Sports Illustrated, 12/1/03 issue
composed of: Bunyan (reference to Paul Bunyan, a character in an American folk tale) + "-esque," an adjective suffix
apparent meaning: very impressive, almost superhuman
type of word formation: Analogy/Affixation
reason used: This word was created in an attempt to evoke a very strong mental image, specifically of amazing feats of strength or skill. Almost every American child becomes familiar with the tall tale of Paul Bunyan as he is growing up; therefore, a word such as "Bunyanesque" would be instantly recognizable and understood by a vast majority of people. The suffix "-esque" may have been used for a variety of reasons. Phonetically, it flows smoothly from the "n" sound to the "es" because the tongue is in good position to form those two sounds consecutively. Esthetically, "-esque" evokes a more majestic connotation, as opposed to other adjective suffixes like "-y" which seems more common and mundane. "Bunyany" does not have the same effect as "Bunyanesque."
dictionary entry: Bunyanesque, adj.
Describing an action or deed that is extremely impressive, if not superhuman; from the American tall tale featuring Paul Bunyan.

context and source: I said something similar to "This last week of classes, I've got buquads of homework to do." Used by me frequently and heard originally from my parents.
composed of: no identifiable morphemes
apparent meaning: A whole lot of something; a bunch
type of word formation: new derivation
reason used: Sounds and looks similar to many other words that mean a whole lot of something, like the French beaucoup, bushels, buckets, bunches, etc. My parents are both from the South, so it could be a Cajun variation on beaucoup.
dictionary entry: buquad - n. A large quantity or amount; a lot ('At tennis practice, I worked on my serve technique by hitting buquads of balls.') [new derivation; similar to the French beaucoup]

context and source: "Our professor was definitely a burner." (Andy Gonzalez, October 11th, 2003)
composed of: 'burn-' + '-er' (n)
apparent meaning: Someone who is a letdown does not meet one's expectations.
type of word formation: Zero Derivation, Metaphor
reason used: In this instance, the speaker uses the word in a metaphorical sense. They had expectations for the professor that were not meant. This "burnt" them metaphorically, meaning they were let down and disappointed. It's the same idea as a parent saying that it hurt them to know that their child was behaving badly in school. It is an injury sustained to the mind more than the body. So because the professor has "burnt" them and their expectations, he is referred to as a 'burner.'
dictionary entry: Burner
n. A person or thing that fails to come up to the expectation or hope of [Zero derivation from burner]

context and source: 'The dragon used his fire to burninate the houses.' (overheard in a lunch conversation, week of 9/1, 2003)
composed of: 'burn' (to set aflame) X 'terminate' (to kill or destroy)
apparent meaning: to set things on fire while causing which destruction
type of word formation: blend
reason used: This guy was talking about dragons for some reason at lunch one day and spouted off this interesting word. When one thinks of a fire-breathing dragon, what does one think about? Death and destruction, plus lots of fire. Hence 'burn' and the word 'terminate' blend to form 'burninate.' I have also heard other people use back formation to form the word 'burnination,' the state or act of burninating.
dictionary entry: burninate, v. to set aflame and cause mass destruction, usually associated with dragons ('the dragon burninated the village') [blend; arising from 'burn' X 'terminate']

context and source: "Burninating the country side, burninating the peasants, burninating all the people in thatch roof cottages." (heard off of online flash cartoon 9/30/03)
composed of: 'burn' (to produce fire or heat to destroy an object) + '-in' (n) + '-ate' (v) + '-ing' (v)
apparent meaning: the act of laying waste to the land by fire. It is the action of a burninator.
type of word formation: derivation
reason used: The singer of the song wanted to describe the act of the dragon burning down everything with his fiery breath. By putting several morphemes together, he came up with a verb that conveys the act of burning things down.
dictionary entry: burninating v.
laying waste to the land by fire ('burninating the country side') [new derivation; formed from 'burn' + '-in' + '-ate' + '-ing']

context and source: "Now he needs a name; how about Trogdor the Burninator." (heard off of online flash cartoon 9/30/03)
composed of: 'burn' (to produce fire or heat to destroy an object) + '-in' (n) + '-ate' (v) + '-er/-or' (n)
apparent meaning: a dragon who lays waste to the land by burning everything to the ground with his breath.
type of word formation: derivation
reason used: The speaker in the cartoon was looking for a word that described a dragon who laid waste to the land. He created a word that is based off of the word 'terminator.' By doing so, he further creates the image of a being that destroys everything in its path.
dictionary entry: burninator n.
name given to a creature that destroys using fire. ('Trogdor the Burninator') [new derivation; 'burn' + '-in' + '-ate' + '-er/-or']

context and source: "He's a buttmunch" (in conversation with roommate talking about a guy from highschool 12/1/03)
composed of: 'butt' (to hit something with the head) + 'munch' (to eat food loudly)
apparent meaning: someone that is being particularly annoying. The word can be used for someone liked by the speaker, it just means that the person is annoying the speaker.
type of word formation: compound
reason used: The speaker was describing a guy from high school she was friends with that usually annoyed her. She used munch in her word because munching is eating food in an annoying way.
dictionary entry: buttmuch n.
someone who is being annoying ('he's a buttmunch') [new compound; formed from 'butt' and 'munch']

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