HTML is a language composed by a set of instructions between <> . All the instruccions are constituted by two parts that correspond to the begining <INSTRUCTION> and end </INSTRUCTION> of it. For example, the TITLE in this page (which appears in the right corner of the frame) is declared as

<TITLE> Make your own homepage </TITLE>

The Instruccions in HTML can be divided in four groups:

File and Body instructions
Style instructions
Lines and Tables
Links and References

To help you with the construction of your homepage, here you have some tips and recomendations:

Details & Recomendations

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File and Body instructions

Every *.html file must have the following structure:

The BACKGROUND command can be ommited, and in such case the default backgroung of the page will be gray . When the background is set with a file, it has to be an image with format GIFF or TIFF. To set a brackground color different from gray, you mut write the hexadecimal number corresponding to the desired color, a table of colors is shown in the next section.

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Style instructions

  • Character Styles
  • Italic <I>Text</I>
    Bold <BF> Text </BF>
    Blink <BLINK> Text </BLINK>

  • Types of Alignment
  • Center

    <CENTER> Text </CENTER>


    <DIV ALIGN=right> Text </DIV>
    Left Default

  • Strange Characters
  • á _&aacute;_
    é _&eacute;_
    í _&iacute;_
    ó _&oacute;_
    ú _&uacute;_
    ñ _&ntilde;_

  • Kinds of Text
  • Headings <H#> Text </H#>
    Normal <P> Text </P>
  • Bulleted list
  • <LI> Text </LI>
    Title <TITLE> Text </TITLE>

    where # is a number between 1 and 6, and is related with the size and importance of the header

  • Changing size and colors
  • To modify the size and color of a pice of text, you must use the FONT instruction, with is acompanied with the parameters COLOR and SIZE. The FONT command is used as follows:

    <FONT COLOR="#color number" SIZE=size number> Text </FONT>

  • The color number is set with an hexadecimal number and a list of colors is shown next
  • #008000












    The size number is an integer number between -2 and +4, and the sizes are as follows








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    Links and References

    The reference instructions are related with the definition of labels, and links . In this section it is also discussed how a figure. can be displayed in a document.

    To make a link or a reference with another file or a specific part of a file, the following structure must be used

    <A HREF="Refered homepage or label">Text</A>

  • To make a link with an online homepage, the complete web adress must be written. For example, if you want to make a link with the Me.S.A.R. Homepage, the instruction is
  • <A HREF="">Me.S.A.R.'s Homepage</A>

    and in your homepage will appear the following text

    Me.S.A.R.'s Homepage

    The color of the text and the style of it can be changed using the instructions defined in the previous section.

  • To make a link with a specific section of a document (*.html), the previous instruction takes the form
  • <A HREF=" File name#label name"> Text</A>

    The File name must include the extension (*.html) and the path when the refered file is not in the same directory than the current file. Even if the refered text is in the same file, the file name must be included. The presence of the character #, indicates that the preceding text is the name of the label. You will know that the there is a reference because the text will appear underlined, just as in the previous case.

    This instruction causes the program searchs the label in the refered file. To define the label the instruction is

    <A NAME=" label name"> </A>

    and must be located in the place where you want to go when click the text. This instruction does not produces any text, but if it is no t present you can not reach the refered part of the document.

    For example, to make a link with the first page of this file (help.html), the instruction is

    <A HREF=" help.html #go1st"> first page</A>

    and in the first page there is an instruction like

    <A NAME=" go1st"> </A>

  • Working with images
  • To include an image, the following istruction is required

    <A IMG SRC=" Image Name" BORDER=num HEIGHT=h WIDTH=w > </A>

  • num can take only two values: 1 and 0. When BORDER=1, the image appears with a border line.
  • h and w represent the height and width of the image in pixels.
  • When these options are not specified, the image appears with border line and in its original size.

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    Lines and Tables

  • The instruction to write a line is
  • <P > <HR SIZE=size WIDTH=w > </P>

    Where size is a number between 1 and 5 and corresponds to the thickness of the line, and w represents the percent of page covered by the line. When w is less than 100%, the line can be centered or aligned to the left using the style instructions discussed before.

  • A table is constructed using the instrucction
  • <TABLE BORDER=num HEIGHT="h%" WIDTH="w%" >

    Rows and Columns


    As before, num can take the values 0 and 1. w and h represent the maximum height and width of the table respectivelly, and these parameters can take values between 0 and 100. The command SIZE=size, can be included before the BORDER command, to modify the thickness of the lines in the table.

    To define a row s and columns the instructions

    <TR> Text</TR>



    are used, respectivelly.

    For example, to display the table

    1st row, field #1 1st row, field #2
    2nd row, field #1 2nd row, field #2
    3rd row, field1# 3rd row, field #2

    you must write the following istructions

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    Details & Recomendations

  • To keep learning how to create references and links, I encourage you to open the document source of the homepages that you visit. To see the document source, you must select the Edit command from the Netscape menu.

  • If you wish to know more about HTML, here are some web sites to vist:

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