Midterm 1, the second exam, will cover Chapters 1-6, class discussions, and web pages linked to course schedule and Canvas modules, but with more emphasis on the topics since the first Study Test.
There are a few questions on the History of English, similar to the ones in the Study Test; some on loanwords, mostly on those in Ch. 6; and some on the Word Formation Types (neologism types).
By now you should have mastered the
morphological concepts introduced in the first part of the course.
The midterm will build on these concepts (loanwords, a little on the major periods of the history of English, morphemes,
roots, affixes, free, bound, and the word formation types). You can review these at:
Roots and affixes Roots and affixes
Also useful in preparing for the Midterm is the first review
Review 1: Study Guide..
The Midterm will have a stronger emphasis on: allomorphy and types ("rules") of allomorphy; assimilation types and processes, as well as important cases of assimilation in classical morphology; phonetics - understanding of consonants and vowels (sounds not letters!) and their production using the vocal tract and the articulators (tongue, lips, teeth); the resulting classes of sounds; the number words of Ch. 6; and on parsing.
Parsing and the word formation types/neologism types are topics that continue throughout the course.
Here are some skills Midterm 1 (the second exam) will test:
Parsing means dividing a word into all of its component morphemes. This process includes a) making the right divisions; b) identifying the most basic form of each morpheme; and c) glossing each morpheme. Contrast parsing into morphemes with etymology, see p. 65.
Review Parsing page
Also review Sound terminology page for some good examples of parsing, as well as the definitions of the major sound classes .
Review word formation types. Learn to recognize examples of each. Neologisms discussed in class might be asked about.
compounding - forms compounds
conversion (= zero-derivation)
blending - forms blends
clipping - forms clippings
reverse acronyms (= backronyms)
reanalysis (change in understanding of morpheme boundaries) (hamburg + er --> ham + burger)
onomotopoeia (sound of word directly mimics sound of thing, like words for animals/animal sounds)
sound symbolism (sounds in a word suggest an idea, like disgust, stink, smallness, lightness)
Latin weakening (vowel weakening)
consonants vs. vowels
voicing (= phonation)
larynx (voice box), vocal chords
place of articulation
alveolar ridge, alveolar
alveo-palatal (= palato-alveolar; post-alveolar)
hard palate, palatal
soft palate (= velum), velar
manner of articulation
stop, oral stop (= plosive)
liquid (r and l)
vowel frontness: front/central/back
vowel height: high/mid/low
vowel tenseness: tense, lax
schwa (the mid-central vowel; the most neutral vowel)
diphthongs - complex vowels (vowels composed of more than one simple vowel sound)
sounds vs. letters (pronunciation vs. spelling) - the terms above all apply to SOUNDS not letters
partial & total assimilation
© Suzanne Kemmer
Last modified 10 October 2017