The following parsings of the sound terminology used in class and in Chapter 5 are provided to help you understand and remember the terms, and in part to reinforce your parsing knowledge and experience.
Most of the following terms come from Latin. The exceptions are glottal, glottis which are based on a Greek root.
bilabial bi + lab + i + al 'produced with the two lips' two lip (linker) ADJ interdental inter + dent + al 'produced with tongue between between tooth ADJ the teeth' alveolar alveol + ar 'produced at the alveolus, a small ADJ i.e. the alveolar ridge' hollow (so called because it abuts on the tooth sockets, or alveoli 'little hollows') alveo-palatal alveo(l) + palat + al 'produced starting at the a small palate ADJ alveolar ridge then immediately hollow afterwards at the palate' alveol is from alveol-us, the diminutive form of alveus 'a cavity, hollow' palatal palat + al 'produced at the palate' palate ADJ (palate has an uncertain etymology; possibly Latin borrowed it from Etruscan) velar vel + ar 'produced at the velum, flap, ADJ or soft palate' covering veil glottal glott/gloss + al 'produced at the glottis' glottis ADJ (see below) glottis glott + is 'the vocal chord part of tongue, 'N' the upper larynx' speech, language' Glottis can be thought of meaning literally 'speech organ', but its actual present meaning is of course more specific.)
The adjective endings -ive and -al below are in these articulatory terms being used as noun endings, via leaving out the nouns they modify (e.g. 'plosive sounds' > 'plosives' etc.) We can think of this as a zero-derivation of nouns from adjectives. I gloss them here as adjective endings because that is their primary use and these terms are still easily used as adjectives.
stop (native word) 'sound produced with total stoppage of airflow in the mouth' same as: plosive plod/plos + ive (see above) burst, ADJ explode fricative fric + at/ate + ive 'sound produced with partial rub V ADJ occlusion of vocal tract, producing audible friction' affricate ad/af + fric + ate 'sound produced by stopping to, rub ADJ airflow and then partial towards release into a fricative at or near same point of articulation' nasal nas + al 'sound produced by stopping nose ADJ airflow in mouth, but allowing it to continue flowing through nasal tract' liquid liqu + id 'l and r sounds.' So called because fluid ADJ, N they give the acoustic impression sounding like water flowing lateral later + al 'sound produced by touching tongue side ADJ to roof of mouth and letting air pass at one or both sides of the tongue' l is the only lateral in English. approximant ad/ap + proxim + ant 'consonant produced with relatively to, near, ADJ wide opening between articulators; towards nearest an in-between sound that approxi- mates or comes near to a vowel sound.' y and w are the main English approximants; sometimes l is called a lateral approximant.
Other sound terminologyassimilation ad/as + simil + ate + ion to, same V N, towards like 'process of one sound becoming more similar to another that it is close to (typically next to) in the speech stream'
© 2003-11 Suzanne Kemmer
Last modified 22 Aug 2011