Linguistics 320
The Origin and Evolution of Human Language
Prof. Suzanne Kemmer
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Primates: Closest Relatives to Humans

Main Primate Groups

1. Prosimians: lorises, tarsiers, lemurs55 million years before present
2. New World Monkeys: marmosets and tamarins; cebid monkeys30-40 million years B.P.
3. Old World Monkeys: colobines and cercopithecines15-25 million years B.P.
4. Apes: Lesser apes and great apesca. 10-15 million years B.P.
5. Hominidsca. 4 million years B.P.

Apes and Humans (Hominoidea)

Hylobatidae Gibbons
PongidaeGorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans

From Michael Tomasello and Josep Call, 1997. Primate Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.