Volcano Images Page

compiled by

Bill Leeman

Rice University

click on underlined links for more info
Volcano Classifications

Types of volcanoes

Cinder cones

Composite or stratovolcanoes

Shield volcanoes

Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs)

Submarine volcanoes


Other Volcano Photo Archives

Types of Eruptions



Explosive (in order of increasing energetics):

Volcano Morphology

Volcanic Deposits

Debris Avalanches

Debris flow movie


Debris flows, mudflows, lahars

Lahar movie

Lava domes

Lava flows

Lava flow movie

Pyroclastic Flows

Pyroclastic flow movie

Maar or hydrovolcanic deposits

Ash-fall deposits

Ash fall movie

Complex volcanoes

Scales of impact

Distances covered

Areas covered per eruptive phase

Volumes extruded

Volcanic Explosive Index [VEI] - roughly tenfold increase in ejecta volume (and energy release) for each VEI-step; applied to explosive or pyroclastic volcanoes. Certain types of eruptions (e.g., flood basalts, ignimbrite flows) are not included. A comparison in scale between shield (Mauna Loa) and stratovolcanoes (Rainier) is illuminating. Also, time-history of eruptive activity is highly variable between volcanoes - some deposits accumulated over significant time periods (years, Mazama) whereas others were formed in days (Krakatoa).

VEI rank

Volume (km3)

Historic examples


only fumaroles

1949 Yakeyama



1926 Tokachidake



1893 Asama





1959 Oshima



many Hawaiian eruptions



1980 Mt. St. Helens (0.5 km3)



1888 Bandai (1.2 km3)



1883 Krakatau, 18 km3; 1470 B.C. Santorini, 30 km3; Mazama, >40 km3



1815 Tambora, 150 km3

Maximum volumes for a single event generally increase with silica content and vent size - up to 100s - 1000s km3 for large caldera-related silicic eruptions; can be significant for large basalt eruptions.

Caldera sizes - range up to 100 x 35 km (Toba), 70 x 40 km (Yellowstone). There is a complete spectrum to smaller sizes. Number of examples decreases with increasing size.

Volcanic Hazards

Current volcanic activity

Deaths associated with eruption types

Hazard assessment

Additional resources

This page updated 12 Feb 2001 by Bill Leeman