Number of writers in 1795-1863 listed in G. Korbut's Literatura polska [Polish Literature]: 587.
Number of writers in 1795-1863 listed in Hipolit Skimborowicz's Slownik pisarzy polskich [Dictionary of Polish Writers]: 600.
Number of writers in 1795-1863 listed in Hipolit Skimborowicz's "Rejestr" [Register] of writers:1240.
Estimated number of Polish writers in the first half of the nineteenth century: 1,500.
Number of writers about whom detailed information is available: 700.
Percentage of women writers in 1795-1830: 5%.
Percentage of women writers in 1830-1863: 10%.
The years in which the largest number of writers were born: 1797 (12) 1798, 1799 (19), 1800 (17), 1801 (16), 1802 (12), 1804 (14), 1805 (15), 1807 (14), 1808 (15), 1811 (13), 1814 (17), 1816 (13), 1823 (13).
The years in which no writers were born: 1732-1733, 1735-1738, 1740, 1742-1744, 1751, 1753-1754, 1774.
The years of a "demographic high" for writers: 1797-1811 and 1814-1826.
Year in which the first public library was established in Warsaw: 1747.
Number of writers born between 1731-1782: 91.
Name for this group of writers (suggested by Dr. Janina Kamionkowa): contemporaries of the Warsaw Society of Friends of Science [Warszawskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciol Nauk]. Number of writers who were members of that organization: 44.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were of noble [szlachta] background: 47%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were of aristocratic background: 18%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were of middle class background: 8.7%
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were of peasant background: 1.3%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 whose background has not been established: 25%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were educated at home: 5%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who received secondary education in known schools: 27%.
Schools where secondary education was obtained: Jesuit schools in Warsaw, Gdansk, Wilno [now Vilnius], Stanislawow [now Ivano-Frankivsk], Minsk, Ostrog, Mohylow, Polock, Sambor; Piarist schools in Warsaw, Radom, Dabrowica, Wielun, Sambor, Drohiczyn, Vitebsk; Basilian school in Wlodzimierz; Cadet School and Collegium Nobilium in Warsaw; Nowodworskie Gimnazjum in Krakow, Lubranski School in Poznan, and St. Ann's School in Wroclaw.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who obtained higher education: 34%.
Colleges and universities where higher education was obtained: Jagiellonian University, the Zamojski Academy in Zamosc, the Roman Catholic Academy in Wilno [Vilnius], foreign universities in Berlin, Frankfurt, Koeningsberg, Goettingen, Halle, Jena, Leipzig, Paris, Strassbourg, Rome, London, and Edinburgh.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 whose educational background has not been confirmed: 34%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were teachers: 49%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were members of the clergy: 23%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were landowners: 18%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were sponsored by aristocrats and lived at their patrons' homes: 19%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were either aristocrats or high state officials: 17%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were mid-level state bureaucrats: 19%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were librarians employed by the wealthy: 16%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were actors, archivists, booksellers, shoemakers: ca. 1.1% in each category.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were self-supporting landowners: 46%.
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who actively participated in the political and military life of Poland: 29% (one member of the Bar Confederacy, three members of the Targowica Confederacy, 16 participants in the Kosciuszko Rising, two members of General Henryk Dabrowski's Legion, two emigres, two exiles to Siberia).
Percentage of writers born 1731-1782 who were Freemasons: 3%.
Average productivity of writers: 2 vols.
Cities in which the largest numbers of literary works were published, in descending order: Warsaw (37), Krakow (14), Wilno [Vilnius] (12), Paris (7), Lwow [Lviv] (6), Poznan (4), Leipzig (4), Wroclaw (4), Vienna and Polock (2 each).
Writers 1797-1811 (first demographic high)
Percentage of writers of noble background: 52%; of these, of senatorial background: 6%.
Percentage of writers of intelligentsia background: 9%.
Percentage of writers of lower middle class [mieszczanie] background: 5%.
Percentage of writers of peasant background: 3%.
Percentage of writers with higher education: 67%.
Percentage of writers with secondary education: 6%.
Percentage of writers whose educational background is not known: 27%.
Polish universities where higher education was obtained, in descending order: Warsaw, 49; Wilno [Vilnius], 45; Jagiellonian, 11; Lwow [Lviv], 8, Wroclaw, 4. Foreign universities: Paris, 10; Heidelberg, 8; Berlin, 7.
Polish secondary schools where education was obtained, in descending order: Liceum Krzemienieckie, 17; Liceum Warszawskie, 16; Winnica Gimnazjum, 10; Zoliborz Piarist School, 9; Swislocz Gimnazjum, 6; Basilian Gimnazjum in Human, 5; Piarist School in Miedzyrzecze, 5.
Percentage of writers who participated in the November 1830 rising: 51%.
Percentage of writers who were members of underground organizations whose aim was Polish independence: 28%.
Percentage of writers who had to emigrate for political reasons: 30%.
Percentage of writers who were imprisoned or exiled to Siberia for political reasons: 16%.
Average productivity of writers: 5 vols.
Cities in which the largest numbers of literary works were published, in descending order: Warsaw (47), Paris (42), Poznan (39), Wilno and Krakow (33 each), Leipzig (22), Lwow [Lviv] (20), Petersburg (9), Berlin (7), Wroclaw (6).
Writers 1814-1826 (second demographic high)
Percentage of writers with higher education: 50%.(1)
Percentage of writers with secondary education: 16.4%.
Universities where higher education was obtained: Berlin (13), Jagiellonian (11), Kiev (11), Lwow [Lviv] (8), Wroclaw (7).
High schools where education was obtained, in descending order: Liceum Warszawskie, Leszno Gimnazjum, Maria Magdalena Gimnazjum in Poznan, Zoliborz Piarist Gimnazjum.
Percentage of writers who belonged to underground political organizations: 76%.
Average productivity of writers: 7 vols.
Cities in which the largest numbers of literary works were published, in descending order: Warsaw (52), Lwow [Lviv] 26, Poznan (29), Krakow (22), Wilno [Vilnius] (19), Paris (15), Leipzig (10).
Honoraria and professionalism in literature
Year in which copyright law first proposed: 1808, at the meeting of the Towarzystwo Przyjaciol Nauk in Warsaw.
Year in which the first literary public (open-to-all) prize was awarded: 1820 in Wilno, awards of 400 zlotys and 200 zlotys to students for scholarly dissertations.
Yearly salary of professional journalists working for Dziennik Warszawski (est. 1851): 3,000 - 5,000 zlotys.(2)
Adam Mickiewicz's honorarium for the 1833 edition of Pan Tadeusz: 6,550 French francs (ca.10,000 zlotys).
Juliusz Slowacki's literary earnings in 1846: 1632 French francs.
Honorarium offered in 1857 by publisher Merzbach to Mickiewicz's heirs for an 8-volume complete edition of his works: 9,650 rubles (35,600 francs, or 55,000 zlotys).
Range of honoraria for a volume of poetry or prose by a known author in mid-nineteenth century: 1,000-2,000 zlotys.
Range of honoraria for a play in mid-nineteenth century: 333 - 1,000 zlotys.
Range of yearly salaries of white collar workers 1833-1860: 840 - 6,666 zlotys.
Novelist Zygmunt Kaczkowski's literary earnings in 1896: 20,000 zl/year.
Source: doctoral dissertation by Janina Kamionkowa, Zycie literackie w Polsce w pierwszej polowie XIX wieku: studia. IBL-PAN - Historia i teoria literatury, vol. 27. Warsaw. PIW. 1970. 428 pages. Paper. 45 zl.
Poland in the 1990s
Number of foreign students at Polish universities in the 1990-91 academic year: 4,235.
Number of foreign students who graduated in 1991: 420.
Number of universities and other institutions of higher learning in 1990: 98.
Of these, number of technological schools, 18; universities, 11; medical schools, 11; art schools, 17; agricultural schools, 9; physical education schools, 9; economics institutes, 5; theological schools, 3; maritime schools, 2.
Name of school which ranked highest among all schools of higher learning in Poland: Jagiellonian University.
Number of private secondary schools in Poland in 1991: 250.
Source: Fact Sheet on Poland prepared by the Consulate General of the Republic of Poland in Chicago, April 1992.
Polish demography 1993
Population: 38.5 million.
Number of live births: 496,000.
Natural increase rate in 1993: 0.24%.
Net natural increase in 1993: 93,000 (adjusted for mortality and emigration).
Percentage of population under 20 years of age: 33%.
Percentage of deaths caused by heart failures, heart attacks & strokes: 51%.
Percentage of deaths caused by cancer: 18%.
Percentage of deaths caused by violent traumas and accidents: 8%.
Life expectancy for women: 75.5 years.
Life expectancy for men: 66.7 years
Source: Katarzyna Kwiatkowska-Pinkosz, "Czy bedzie nas wiecej?" Tygodnik Solidarnosc, 21 January 1994. One-day operating expenses of the University of Warsaw in 1993: $50,000. Source: Donosy, 17 February 1994.
2 In mid-nineteenth century, 1 Polish zloty =15 Russian kopeks, or 7 American cents.