The Sarmatian Review Index

Persons who signed a letter to the New York Review of Books opposing the admission of Poland and other East Central European states to NATO and protesting the deliberations on the subject:
John A. Armitage, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, 1973-1978; Robert R. Bowie, Counselor, Department of State, 1966-1968; William I. Cargo, Ambassador to Nepal, 1973-1976; William A. Crawford, Ambassador to Romania, 1961-1965; Richard T. Davies, Ambassador to Poland, 1973-1978; Martin J. Hillenbrand, Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany, 1972-1976; U. Alexis Johnson, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, 1961-1964 and 1965-1966; James F. Leonard, Jr., Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, 1977-1979; Jack F. Matlock, Jr., Ambassador to the USSR, 1987-1991; Paul H. Nitze, Secretary of the Navy, 1963-1967; Deputy Secretary of Defense, 1967-1969; Special Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State on Arms Control Matters, 1985-1989; Herbert S. Okun, Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations, 1985-1989; James K. Penfield, Ambassador to Iceland, 1961-1967; Jack R. Perry, Ambassador to Bulgaria, 1979-1981; John D. Scanlan, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, 1981-1982; William E. Schaufele, Jr., Ambassador to Poland, 1978-1980; Galen L. Stone, Ambassador to Cyprus, 1978-1981; Emory C. Swank, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, 1969-1970; Ambassador to Cambodia, 1970-1973; Philip H. Trezise, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 1969-1971.
Source: The New York Review of Books, 21 September 1995.

Percentages of Poles who like a given foreign group:
French, 67%; Americans, 63%; Hungarians, 56%; Swedes, 53%; English, 51%; Slovaks, 44%; Czechs, 43%, Lithuanians and Germans, 35% each. Below these groups are Israelis, Belarusians, Russians, Serbs, Ukrainians and Romanians. The lowest on the scale of sympathy are the Gypsies.
Source: An OBOP opinion poll conducted in May 1995, as reported by the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 31 July 1995.

Percentage decrease, between 1975-1993, of Polish rural population:
3.1% (from 15.2 million to 14.7 million).
Percentage increase, between 1975-1993, of Polish urban population:
Source: Polish Statistical Office [GUS] report "Polska wiez - wybrane dane o gminach," as reported by Donosy, No. 1655, 11 September 1995.

Average monthly wage in Poland's manufacturing sector in Fall 1995 (before taxes):
zl 752.74, or $307,24.
Source: Donosy, No. 1670, 2 October 1995.

Average yearly increase in passenger air traffic in Europe:
Source: Ryszard Zaremba, head of Polish civil aviation department, as reported by Reuter, 18 October 1995.

Estimated growth of world copper consumption in the next seven years, according to Lennart Gustafsson, president of the International Copper Association:
KGHM's copper output in 1995 as percentage of world copper output:
KGHM's silver output in 1995 as percentage of the world's production of refined silver:
9%. Source: Reuter (Warsaw), 19 October 1995.

Prices of medical and dental services in Poland in 1995:
a visit to a doctors' cooperative, $10.00;
a visit to a highly regarded specialist, $29.00;
basic blood and urine tests, $41.00;
the least expensive tooth filling, $12.00.
Maximum amount of tax-deductible medical expenses:
Free (state-sponsored) dental services:
Source: Donosy, No. 1681, 16 October 1995.

Poland's debt (inherited from the times of Soviet domination) to the countries of the Paris Club, which Poland began to repay starting October 1995:
$28 billion.
Source: Donosy, No. 1671, 3 October 1995.

Russia's total foreign debt, of which $32.5 billion has been unserviced since 1991 (on 16 November 1995, the London Club agreed to reschedule that part for 25 years):
$120 billion.
Source: Reuter, 19 October and 15 November 1995; Scott Parrish of OMRI Daily Digest, 17 November 1995.

Fall 1995 Russian debt to the United Nations for dues and peacekeeping:
$500 million.
Source: Reuter, 3 October 1995.

Percentage of the 1996 Polish budget draft devoted to agriculture and to the army, respectively:
2.6% and 2.43%.
Source: Rzeczpospolita on 20 October 1995, as reported by Dagmar Mroziewicz of OMRI Daily Digest on 20 October 1995.

Size of 1993 GDP of the state of Texas and of Russia, respectively:
$443 billion and $348 billion.
Ranking of 1993 GDP of the state of Texas and of Russia, respectively, in world economy:
#11 and #12.
1993 population of the state of Texas and of Russia, respectively:
17.7 million and 147.8 million. Source: Houston Chronicle, 31 August 1995.

Drop in Russian GDP in the first half of 1995 (compared to 1994):
Drop in Russian light industry production in the first half of 1995 (compared to 1994):
Source: First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Oleg Soskovets, as reported by Thomas Sigel of OMRI Daily Digest, 5 September 1995.

Number of people who emigrated from Kazakhstan in 1993 and 1994, respectively:
330,000 and 500,000. Source: Larisa Kokovinets of Reuters, 29 August 1995.

Russian energy exports as percentage of the country's total hard-currency receipts:
Russian energy exports as percentage of the GDP:
Percentage of total world energy output attributed to Russia:
Source: Reuter (Moscow), 14 September 1995.

Size of the Russian armed forces (including Interior Ministry forces) in 1995:
2.5 million.
Source: OMRI Daily Digest, 22 November 1995.

Projected size of the Russian armed forces in the year 2000:
1.5 million.
Source: Reuter, 26 September 1995.

Number of Muslims in the Russian Federation:
20 million.
Source: Laura Belin of OMRI Daily Digest, 21 September 1995.

Percentage of marriages in Russia that ended in a divorce in 1992 and 1993:
Source: Elena Averina, "Put k serdtsu rodiny lezhit cherez zags," Ogonek, No. 26 (June 1995), 37.

Number of Muscovites (per 100,000) who have tuberculosis:
Source: A Moscow health official cited by ITAR-TASS on 15 November 1995, as reported by Thomas Sigel of OMRI Daily Digest, 16 November 1995.

Projected expenses and revenues in Russian 1996 budget draft, appoved by Duma on 15 November 1995:
$92 billion and $74 billion, with a deficit of 3.9% of GDP (funded by international borrowing and issuing government securities).
Projected average monthly inflation on which this budget is based:
Source: Reuter (Moscow), 15 November 1995.

Inflation in Russia in the first 10 months of 1995:
Source: Goskomstat, as reported by Thomas Sigel of OMRI Daily Digest, 8 November 1995.

Projected balanced Czech budget for 1996:
$21.8 billion.
Czech budget for 1995:
$15.3 billion.
Czech GDP growth in 1995 and (projected) in 1996:
4% and 4.4%.
Source: Reuter (Prague), 29 August 1995.

Size of the Czech armed forces in 1995:
Source: Reuter, 19 September 1995.

Estimated percentage of Catholics in Belarus before 1839, when Czar Nicholas I ordered forciful conversion of the people of Belarus to Russian Orthodoxy:
over 80%.
Source: The Catholic World Report, Vol. 5, No. 9 (October 1995), 11. Number of Russian troops presently stationed in Belarus:
Source: Reuter (Minsk), 17 November 1995.

Percentage decline in Russian oil production in 1995 (compared to 1994):
Source: Peter Rutland of OMRI Daily Digest, 9 November 1995.

Projected drop in Russian and American oil production in 1996:
70,000 and 130,000 barrels a day, respectively.
Source: Richard Mably (Reuters News Service), "Rising oil demand not expected to benefit OPEC," Houston Chronicle, 12 November 1995.

Percentage drop in the first nine months of 1995 of capital investment in the Russian economy (compared to 1994):
Total investment in the Russian economy in that period:
$32 billion.
Source: Russian Government's Center for Market Studies, as reported by Thomas Sigel of OMRI Daily Digest, 8 November 1995.

Year-on-year inflation in Poland as of November 1995:
Source: Reuter, 8 November 1995.

Year-on-year inflation in Russia as of November 1995:
Source: Reuter, 20 November 1995.

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Last updated 12/20/96