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Unlike Unix/Linux systems, Microsoft Windows GUI is integrated
with the Windows OS with a well-defined API. Such an integration
may offer Windows benefits in terms of GUI energy efficiency.
Every Windows window has an event handler. All events generated
within a window are passed to its event handler through an event
loop. There are multiple ways to develop GUI applications for
Windows: Win32 API, MFC, ATL, Visual Basic, . Unlike the X
Window system, a significant number of Windows developers use the
Win32 API directly to write Windows applications. Therefore, the
Win32 API is adopted in this work for energy characterization.