Question #1 (2/22)
Q1. Contrast the differences between basaltic versus rhyolitic magma in terms of:
Possible answers: Icelandic, Hawaiian,
Strombolian, Vulcanian, Plinian, Peleean types, or 'effusive lava',
'explosive pyroclastic', 'dome-building', etc. (Use as many answers
as you think fit.)
Question #4 (3/1)
Q4. For the following types of plate boundaries, what are the predominant types of volcanoes and what significant hazards do they pose to humankind?
List any other geologic settings for which there
may be significant volcanic hazards - give an example.
Question #5 (3/3)
Q5. In the United States there are numerous active or dormant volcanoes. Select one active area/volcano that you believe poses a significant hazard, and briefly describe the most serious impacts it may have on society in the future.
(How should we, or the government, prepare for
Climate Change questions
Question #6 (3/15)
Q6. What is the difference between 'weather' and 'climate'?
Question #7 (3/17)
Q7. What is the 'Greenhouse effect'? Explain in terms of atmospheric composition.
A1. Basaltic magmas have higher temperature (> ~1150°C), and lower SiO2 (< ~52%) and viscosity (very fluid) than rhyolites (typically <800-900°C, >68% SiO2, and very 'pasty' or inviscid).
These properties, and the added influence of
water, control the styles of eruption of these magma types.
A2. Any of the following changes, if sufficient in degree, will cause the rock to begin melting:
A4. Volcanism associated with tectonic plate margins:
A6. 'Weather' describes the short-term variations in atmospheric conditions - on time scales ranging from hourly, daily, or even seasonal.
'Climate' refers to these variations on longer time scales - decades, centuries, or millenia.
A7. The 'greenhouse effect' is a warming of the Earth due to trapping of solar energy reflected from Earth's surface by so-called 'greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases include water vapor, methane, and carbon dioxide, all of which occur in very small amounts; because of their strong absorption properties they have a significant effect on energy retention, thereby contributing to global warming.