Conclusions and references from the chapter: Atlas, R., Cornett, L., Lane,
D. M., & Napier, H. A. (in press) The use of animation in Software Training:
Pitfalls and Benefits. In M. Quinoñes and A. Dutta (Eds.) Training
for 21st Century Technology: Applications of Psychological Research
. American Psychological Society, Washiongton, D.C.
The goal of training in computer applications should be to support post-training
performance (Schmidt & Bjork, 1992). How well users can perform their
skills in the long term is much more important than how well they perform
immediately following training and there are several factors that seem to
support long-term retention of skill. Conditions that provide added difficulty
for learners usually result in poor initial performance, but better delayed
performance (Catrambone, 1989; Charney & Reder, 1986; Kamouri et al.,
1986; Schmidt & Bjork, 1992). These more difficult conditions require
a deeper level of cognitive processing which results in better learning.
Also, making the procedural information more meaningful by providing a conceptual
framework may aid skill retention and help learners transfer their skills
to novel situations (Bayman & Mayer, 1988; Kieras & Bovair, 1984;
Rose, 1989). Baggett (1987) also found that the best retention of skill
resulted when the learners first practiced a task "hands-on" before
watching a narrated film of the procedures.
In many organizations, personal computer software training is accomplished
using instructors. Usually, the instructor's computer is connected to a
projector that the class participants can observe. Each student has access
to a personal computer during the training class. After the instructor demonstrates
a procedure, the students then attempt the same process on their computer.
The instructor often discusses concepts as the procedure is explained and
demonstrated. This approach is similar to the Animation plus conceptual
verbal information (AC) condition of our experiments. To improve long-term
retention, the instructor might demonstrate a procedure and direct the students
to complete the procedure for a task in a similar but slightly different
manner. For example, the instructor might change the font size for a document
to 12 pt and direct the students to make the font size 14 pt.
In summary, animation offers to be an effective tool in training the use
of computer software. It is enjoyable and therefore can motivate users to
learn more about their software. Unlike text-based instruction, animation
it is easy to integrate visual and auditory information in animation training.
The auditory information should not provide information completely redundant
with the information displayed visually. Instead, the auditory information
should supplement the procedural information shown visually with conceptual
information. The use of animation has the potential to result in mimicry
and very superficial learning. It appears that introducing slight differences
in the task being shown in the animation and the task the user is asked
to perform helps to reduce mimicry and rote learning and therefore improve
Adams, L.T., Kasserman, J.E., Yearwood, A.A., Perfetto, G.A., Bransford,
J.D., & Franks, J.J. (1988). Memory access: The effects of fact-oriented
versus problem-oriented acquisition. Memory and Cognition, 16(2),
Anderson, J.R., Farrell, R., & Sauers, R. (1984). Learning to ptogram
in LISP. Cognitive Science, 8, 87-129.
Ashworth, C. A. (1992). Skill as the fit between performer resources and
tasks demands: A perspective from software use and learning. Proceedings
of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society,
pp. 444-449. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Auble, P.A., & Franks, J.J. (1978). The effects of effort toward comprehension
on recall. Memory and Cognition, 6(1), 20-25.
Avner, A., Moore, C., & Smith, S. (1980). Active external control: A
basis for superiority of CBI. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction,
Baggett, P. (1984). Role of temporal overlap of visual and auditory material
in forming dual media associations. Journal of Educational Psychology,
Baggett, P. (1987). Learning a procedure from multimedia instructions: The
effects of film and practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1, 183-195.
Bassok, M., & Holyoak, K.J. (1987). Interdomain transfer between isomorphic
topics in algebra and physics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory, and Cognition, 15, 153-166.
Bayman, P., & Mayer, R.E. (1988). Using conceptual models to teach BASIC
computer programming. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3),
Bielaczyc, K., & Recker, M.M. (1991). Learning to learn: The implications
of strategy instruction in computer programming. In L. Birnbaum (Ed.), The
International Conference on the Learning Sciences (pp. 39-44). Charlottesville,
VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.
Bruner, J.S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review,
Carroll, J.M. (1984). Minimalist training. Datamation, 30(19),
Carroll, J. M. (1987). Preface. In J. Carroll (ed.), Interfacing thought:
Cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction. Cambridge: Bradley
Carroll, J.M., & Mack, R.L. (1985). Metaphor, computing systems, and
active learning. International Journal of Man-Machine Systems, 22,
Carroll, J.M., Mack, R.L., Lewis, Grischkowsky, & Robertson (1985).
Exploring exploring a word processor. Human-Computer Interaction,
Carroll, J.M., & Mazur, S.A. (1986). Lisalearning. IEEE Computer,
Carroll, J. M., & Rosson, M. B. (1987). Paradox of the active user.
In J. Carroll (Ed.), Interfacing thought: Cognitive aspects of human-computer
interaction. (pp. 80-111). Cambridge: Bradley Books.
Carroll, J.M., Smith-Kerker, P.L., Ford, J.R., & Mazur-Rimetz, S.A.
(1987). The minimal manual. Human-Computer Interaction, 3,
Catrambone, R. (1989). Specific versus general instructions: Initial performance
and later transfer. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual
Charney, D.H., & Reder, L.M. (1986). Designing interactive tutorials
for computer users. Human-Computer Interaction, 2, 297-317.
Charney, D.H., Reder, L.M., & Kusbit, G.W. (1990). Goal setting and
procedure selection in acquiring computer skills: A comparison of tutorials,
problem solving, and learner exploration. Cognition and Instruction,
Chi, M.T.H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M.W., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989).
Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve
problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145-182.
Conway, M.A., Cohen, G., & Stanhope, N. (1991). On the very long-term
retention of knowledge acquired through formal education: Twelve years of
cognitive psychology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General,
Conway, M.A., Cohen, G., & Stanhope, N. (1992). Very long-term memory
for knowledge acquired at school and university. Applied Cognitive Psychology,
Cornett, L. L. (1993). Animated demonstrations versus text: A comparison
of training methods. Unpublished master's thesis, Rice University, Houston.
Duffy, T.M., Palmer, J.E., & Mehlenbacher, B. (1992). Online Help:
Design and Evaluation. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Ferguson-Hessler, M.G.M., & de Jong, T. (1990). Studying physics texts:
Differences in study processes between good and poor performers. Cognition
and Instruction, 7, 41-54.
Friedlander, B.Z. (1965). A psychologist's second thoughts on concepts,
curiosity, and discovery in teaching and learning. Harvard Educational
Gick, M.L., & Holyoak, K.J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical
transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 1-38.
Gick, M.L., & Holyoak, K.J. (1987). The cognitive basis of knowledge
transfer. In S. M. Cormier & J. D. Hagman (Eds.) Transfer of Learning
(pp. 9-46). New York: Academic Press.
Gist, M., Rosen, B., & Schwoerer, C. (1988). The influence of training
method and trainee age on the acquisition of computer skills. Personnel
Psychology, 41, 255-265.
Gist, M., Rosen, B., & Schwoerer, C. (1989). Effects of alternative
training methods on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(6), 884-891.
Halasz, F.G., & Moran, T.P. (1983). Mental models and problem solving
in using a calculator. In Proceedings of CHI '83. Human Factors
in Computing Systems (pp.212-221). New York: ACM.
Hermann, G. (1969). Learning by discovery: A critical review of studies.
Journal of Experimental Education, 38(1), 59-72.
Jacoby, L.I., (1978). On interpreting the effects of repetition: Solving
a problem versus remembering a solution. Journal of Verbal Learning and
Verbal Behavior, 17, 649-667.
Kamouri, A.L., Kamouri, J., & Smith, K.H. (1986). Training by exploration:
Facilitating the transfer of procedural knowledge through analogical reasoning.
International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 24, 171-192.
Kearsley, G. (1988). Online help systems - design and implementation. New
Kieras, D.E., & Bovair, S. (1984). The role of a mental model in learning
to operate a device. Cognitive Science, 8, 255-273.
Krauss, F.S., Middendorf, K.A., & Willits, L.S. (1991). A comparative
investigation of hard copy vs. online documentation. Proceedings of the
Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, 350-353.
Landauer, T.K. (1987). Relations between cognitive psychology and computer
system design. In J. Carroll (ed.), Interfacing thought: Cognitive aspects
of human-computer interaction (pp.1-25). Cambridge: Bradley Books.
LeFevre, J., & Dixon, P. (1986). Do written instructions need examples?
Cognition and Instruction, 3, 1-30.
Lockhart, R.S., Lamon, M., & Gick, M.L. (1988). Conceptual transfer
in simple insight problems. Memory and Cognition, 16(1), 36-44.
Lotus Development Corporation. (1993). Lotus 1-2-3 [Computer Program]. Cambridge,
Mack, R.L., Lewis, C.H., & Carroll, J.M. (1990). Learning to use word
processors: Problems and prospects. In J. Preece & L. Keller (Eds.),
Human-computer interaction (pp. 185-204). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McDaniel, M.A., & Schlager, M.S. (1990). Discovery learning and transfer
of problem-solving skills. Cognition and Instruction, 7(2),
Microsoft Corporation. (1994). Word [Computer Program]. Redmond, WA: Author.
Napier, H.A., Batsell, R.R., Lane, D.L., & Guadagno, N.S. (1992). Knowledge
of command usage in a spreadsheet program. Database, Winter, 13-21.
Needham, D.R., & Begg, I.M. (1991). Problem-oriented training promotes
spontaneous analogical transfer: Memory-oriented training promotes memory
for training. Memory and Cognition, 19(6), 543-557.
Owen, E., & Sweller, J. (1985). What do students learn while solving
mathematics problems? Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3),
Paas, F.G.W.C. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving
skill in statistics: A cognitive load approach. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 84(4), 429-434.
Paas, F.G.W.C., & Merrienboer, J.J.G.V. (1994). Variability of worked
examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive
load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 122-133.
Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1991a). Animated demonstrations vs written
instructions for learning procedural tasks: A preliminary investigation.
International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34, 687-701.
Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1991b). An evaluation of animated demonstrations
for learning computer-based tasks. (Technical Report C4E-ONR-4). Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan.
Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1991c). An evaluation of animated demonstrations
for learning computer-based tasks. Proceedings of CHI `91 Human Factors
in Computing Systems, 257-263. New York: ACM.
Palmiter, S., Elkerton, J., & Baggett, P. (1991). Animated demonstrations
versus written instructions for learning procedural tasks: A preliminary
investigation. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34,
Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1993). Animated demonstrations for learning
procedural computer-based tasks. Human-Computer Interaction, 8,
Payne, S.J., Chesworth, L., & Hill, E. (1990). Animated demonstrations
for exploratory learners. T J Watson Research Center, New York, IBM Research
Perfetto, G.A., Bransford, J.D., & Franks, J.J. (1983). Constraints
on access in a problem-solving context. Memory & Cognition, 11,
Perfetto, G.A., Yearwood, A.A., Franks, J.J., & Bransford, J.D. (1987).
Effects of generation on memory access. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society,
Pierce, K.A., Duncan, M.K., Gholson, B., Ray, G.E., & Kamhi, A.G. (1993)
Cognitive load, schema acquisition, and procedural adaptation in nonisomorphic
analogical transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85,
Pirolli, P. (1991). Effects of examples and their explanations in a lesson
on recursion: A production system analysis. Cognition and Instruction,
Pirolli, P., & Anderson, J.R. (1985). The role of learning from examples
in acquissition of recursive programming skills. Canadian Journal of
Psychology, 39, 240-272.
Pirolli, P., & Bielaczyk, K. (1989). Empirical Analyses of self-explanation
and transfer in learning to program. In G.M. Olson & E.E. Smith (Eds.),
Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society
(pp. 450-457). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Reed, S.K., & Bolstad, C. A. (1991). Use of examples and procedures
in problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,
and Cognition, 17, 753-766.
Robert, J.M. (1987). Learning a computer system by unassisted exploration.
In H. Bullinger & B. Shackel (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction -
Interact '87 (pp. 651-656). New York: Elsevier Science.
Rose, A.M. (1989). Acquisition and retention of skills. In G. MacMillan
(Ed.), Applications of Human Performance Models to System Design.
New York: Plenum Press.
Scandura, J.M. (1964). An analysis of expository and discovery modes of
problem solving. Journal of Experimental Education, 33, 149-159.
Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice:
Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training.
Psychological Science, 3(4), 207-217.
Semb, G.B., & Ellis, J.A. (1994). Knowledge taught in school: What is
remembered? Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 253-286.
Shneiderman, B. (1987). Designing the user interface. Reading: Addisson-Wesley.
Slamecka, N.J., & Graf, P. (1978). The generation effect: Delineation
of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and
Memory, 4, 592-604.
Specht, L.B., & Sandlin, P.K. (1991). the differential effects of experiential
learning activities and traditional lecture classes in accounting. Simulation
& Gaming, 22(2), 196-210.
Steinberg, E.R. (1989). Cognition and learner control: A literature review,
1977-1988. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(4), 117-121.
Sutcliffe, A.G., & Old, A.C. (1987). Do users know they have user models?
Some experiences in the practice of user modelling. In H. Bullinger &
B.Shackel (Eds.), Human Computer Interaction - Interact '87 (pp.35-41),
Sweller, J., Chandler, P., Tierney, P., & Cooper, M. (1990). Cognitive
load as a factor in the structuring of technical material. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: General, 119(2), 176-192.
Sweller, J., & Cooper, G.A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a
substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and Instruction,
Temple, Barker, & Sloane, Inc. (1990) The Bnefits of the Grapical User
Interface: A Report on New Primary Research. Technical report published
by Temple, Barker, & Sloan, Inc. Lexington, MA.
VanLehn, K. (1986). Arithmetic procedures are induced from examples. In
J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case of mathematics
(pp. 130-180). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
VanLehn, K., Jones, R.M., & Chi, M.T.H. (1992). A model of the self-explanation
effect. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2, 1-59.
Ward, M., & Sweller, J. (1990). Structuring effective worked examples.
Cognition and Instruction, 7(1), 1-39.
Waterson, P., & O'Malley, C. (1992). Using animated demonstrations to
teach graphics skills. In A. Monk, D. Diaper & M.D. Harrison (Eds.),
Proceedings of HCI 92: People and Computers VII (pp. 463-474). York:
Cambridge University Press.
Wendel, R., & Frese, M. (1987). Developing exploratory strategies in
training: The general approach and a specific example for manual use. In
H. Bullinger & B. Shackel (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction - Interact
'87 (pp. 943-948). New York: Elsevier Science.
Williams, T.R., & Farkas, D.K. (1992). Minimalism reconsidered: Should
we design documentation for exploratory learning. SIGCHI Bulletin,
Woolf, B. (1992). Hypermedia in education and training. In D. Kopec &
R. B. Thompson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Tutoring
Systems: Knowledge-Based Systems for Teaching and Learning (pp. 97-109).
New York: Ellis Horwood.