Conclusions and references from the chapter: Atlas, R., Cornett, L., Lane, D. M., & Napier, H. A. (in press) The use of animation in Software Training: Pitfalls and Benefits. In M. Quinoñes and A. Dutta (Eds.) Training for 21st Century Technology: Applications of Psychological Research . American Psychological Society, Washiongton, D.C.

The goal of training in computer applications should be to support post-training performance (Schmidt & Bjork, 1992). How well users can perform their skills in the long term is much more important than how well they perform immediately following training and there are several factors that seem to support long-term retention of skill. Conditions that provide added difficulty for learners usually result in poor initial performance, but better delayed performance (Catrambone, 1989; Charney & Reder, 1986; Kamouri et al., 1986; Schmidt & Bjork, 1992). These more difficult conditions require a deeper level of cognitive processing which results in better learning. Also, making the procedural information more meaningful by providing a conceptual framework may aid skill retention and help learners transfer their skills to novel situations (Bayman & Mayer, 1988; Kieras & Bovair, 1984; Rose, 1989). Baggett (1987) also found that the best retention of skill resulted when the learners first practiced a task "hands-on" before watching a narrated film of the procedures.

In many organizations, personal computer software training is accomplished using instructors. Usually, the instructor's computer is connected to a projector that the class participants can observe. Each student has access to a personal computer during the training class. After the instructor demonstrates a procedure, the students then attempt the same process on their computer. The instructor often discusses concepts as the procedure is explained and demonstrated. This approach is similar to the Animation plus conceptual verbal information (AC) condition of our experiments. To improve long-term retention, the instructor might demonstrate a procedure and direct the students to complete the procedure for a task in a similar but slightly different manner. For example, the instructor might change the font size for a document to 12 pt and direct the students to make the font size 14 pt.

In summary, animation offers to be an effective tool in training the use of computer software. It is enjoyable and therefore can motivate users to learn more about their software. Unlike text-based instruction, animation it is easy to integrate visual and auditory information in animation training. The auditory information should not provide information completely redundant with the information displayed visually. Instead, the auditory information should supplement the procedural information shown visually with conceptual information. The use of animation has the potential to result in mimicry and very superficial learning. It appears that introducing slight differences in the task being shown in the animation and the task the user is asked to perform helps to reduce mimicry and rote learning and therefore improve long-term retention.

Adams, L.T., Kasserman, J.E., Yearwood, A.A., Perfetto, G.A., Bransford, J.D., & Franks, J.J. (1988). Memory access: The effects of fact-oriented versus problem-oriented acquisition. Memory and Cognition, 16(2), 167-175.

Anderson, J.R., Farrell, R., & Sauers, R. (1984). Learning to ptogram in LISP. Cognitive Science, 8, 87-129.

Ashworth, C. A. (1992). Skill as the fit between performer resources and tasks demands: A perspective from software use and learning. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 444-449. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Auble, P.A., & Franks, J.J. (1978). The effects of effort toward comprehension on recall. Memory and Cognition, 6(1), 20-25.

Avner, A., Moore, C., & Smith, S. (1980). Active external control: A basis for superiority of CBI. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 6(4), 115-118.

Baggett, P. (1984). Role of temporal overlap of visual and auditory material in forming dual media associations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 408-416.

Baggett, P. (1987). Learning a procedure from multimedia instructions: The effects of film and practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1, 183-195.

Bassok, M., & Holyoak, K.J. (1987). Interdomain transfer between isomorphic topics in algebra and physics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 153-166.

Bayman, P., & Mayer, R.E. (1988). Using conceptual models to teach BASIC computer programming. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 291-298.

Bielaczyc, K., & Recker, M.M. (1991). Learning to learn: The implications of strategy instruction in computer programming. In L. Birnbaum (Ed.), The International Conference on the Learning Sciences (pp. 39-44). Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

Bruner, J.S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 21-32.

Carroll, J.M. (1984). Minimalist training. Datamation, 30(19), 125-136.

Carroll, J. M. (1987). Preface. In J. Carroll (ed.), Interfacing thought: Cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction. Cambridge: Bradley Books.

Carroll, J.M., & Mack, R.L. (1985). Metaphor, computing systems, and active learning. International Journal of Man-Machine Systems, 22, 39-57.

Carroll, J.M., Mack, R.L., Lewis, Grischkowsky, & Robertson (1985). Exploring exploring a word processor. Human-Computer Interaction, 1, 283-307.

Carroll, J.M., & Mazur, S.A. (1986). Lisalearning. IEEE Computer, 91(11), 35-49.

Carroll, J. M., & Rosson, M. B. (1987). Paradox of the active user. In J. Carroll (Ed.), Interfacing thought: Cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction. (pp. 80-111). Cambridge: Bradley Books.

Carroll, J.M., Smith-Kerker, P.L., Ford, J.R., & Mazur-Rimetz, S.A. (1987). The minimal manual. Human-Computer Interaction, 3, 123-153.

Catrambone, R. (1989). Specific versus general instructions: Initial performance and later transfer. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting, 1320-1323.

Charney, D.H., & Reder, L.M. (1986). Designing interactive tutorials for computer users. Human-Computer Interaction, 2, 297-317.

Charney, D.H., Reder, L.M., & Kusbit, G.W. (1990). Goal setting and procedure selection in acquiring computer skills: A comparison of tutorials, problem solving, and learner exploration. Cognition and Instruction, 7, 323-342.

Chi, M.T.H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M.W., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145-182.

Conway, M.A., Cohen, G., & Stanhope, N. (1991). On the very long-term retention of knowledge acquired through formal education: Twelve years of cognitive psychology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120(4), 395-409.

Conway, M.A., Cohen, G., & Stanhope, N. (1992). Very long-term memory for knowledge acquired at school and university. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 6, 467-482.

Cornett, L. L. (1993). Animated demonstrations versus text: A comparison of training methods. Unpublished master's thesis, Rice University, Houston.

Duffy, T.M., Palmer, J.E., & Mehlenbacher, B. (1992). Online Help: Design and Evaluation. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Ferguson-Hessler, M.G.M., & de Jong, T. (1990). Studying physics texts: Differences in study processes between good and poor performers. Cognition and Instruction, 7, 41-54.

Friedlander, B.Z. (1965). A psychologist's second thoughts on concepts, curiosity, and discovery in teaching and learning. Harvard Educational Review, 18-38.

Gick, M.L., & Holyoak, K.J. (1983). Schema induction and analogical transfer. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 1-38.

Gick, M.L., & Holyoak, K.J. (1987). The cognitive basis of knowledge transfer. In S. M. Cormier & J. D. Hagman (Eds.) Transfer of Learning (pp. 9-46). New York: Academic Press.

Gist, M., Rosen, B., & Schwoerer, C. (1988). The influence of training method and trainee age on the acquisition of computer skills. Personnel Psychology, 41, 255-265.

Gist, M., Rosen, B., & Schwoerer, C. (1989). Effects of alternative training methods on self-efficacy and performance in computer software training. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(6), 884-891.

Halasz, F.G., & Moran, T.P. (1983). Mental models and problem solving in using a calculator. In Proceedings of CHI '83. Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp.212-221). New York: ACM.

Hermann, G. (1969). Learning by discovery: A critical review of studies. Journal of Experimental Education, 38(1), 59-72.

Jacoby, L.I., (1978). On interpreting the effects of repetition: Solving a problem versus remembering a solution. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 649-667.

Kamouri, A.L., Kamouri, J., & Smith, K.H. (1986). Training by exploration: Facilitating the transfer of procedural knowledge through analogical reasoning. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 24, 171-192.

Kearsley, G. (1988). Online help systems - design and implementation. New Jersey: Ablex

Kieras, D.E., & Bovair, S. (1984). The role of a mental model in learning to operate a device. Cognitive Science, 8, 255-273.

Krauss, F.S., Middendorf, K.A., & Willits, L.S. (1991). A comparative investigation of hard copy vs. online documentation. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting, 350-353.

Landauer, T.K. (1987). Relations between cognitive psychology and computer system design. In J. Carroll (ed.), Interfacing thought: Cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction (pp.1-25). Cambridge: Bradley Books.

LeFevre, J., & Dixon, P. (1986). Do written instructions need examples? Cognition and Instruction, 3, 1-30.

Lockhart, R.S., Lamon, M., & Gick, M.L. (1988). Conceptual transfer in simple insight problems. Memory and Cognition, 16(1), 36-44.

Lotus Development Corporation. (1993). Lotus 1-2-3 [Computer Program]. Cambridge, MA: Author.

Mack, R.L., Lewis, C.H., & Carroll, J.M. (1990). Learning to use word processors: Problems and prospects. In J. Preece & L. Keller (Eds.), Human-computer interaction (pp. 185-204). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

McDaniel, M.A., & Schlager, M.S. (1990). Discovery learning and transfer of problem-solving skills. Cognition and Instruction, 7(2), 129-159.

Microsoft Corporation. (1994). Word [Computer Program]. Redmond, WA: Author.

Napier, H.A., Batsell, R.R., Lane, D.L., & Guadagno, N.S. (1992). Knowledge of command usage in a spreadsheet program. Database, Winter, 13-21.

Needham, D.R., & Begg, I.M. (1991). Problem-oriented training promotes spontaneous analogical transfer: Memory-oriented training promotes memory for training. Memory and Cognition, 19(6), 543-557.

Owen, E., & Sweller, J. (1985). What do students learn while solving mathematics problems? Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 272-284.

Paas, F.G.W.C. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: A cognitive load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 429-434.

Paas, F.G.W.C., & Merrienboer, J.J.G.V. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 122-133.

Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1991a). Animated demonstrations vs written instructions for learning procedural tasks: A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34, 687-701.

Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1991b). An evaluation of animated demonstrations for learning computer-based tasks. (Technical Report C4E-ONR-4). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1991c). An evaluation of animated demonstrations for learning computer-based tasks. Proceedings of CHI `91 Human Factors in Computing Systems, 257-263. New York: ACM.

Palmiter, S., Elkerton, J., & Baggett, P. (1991). Animated demonstrations versus written instructions for learning procedural tasks: A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34, 687-701.

Palmiter, S., & Elkerton, J. (1993). Animated demonstrations for learning procedural computer-based tasks. Human-Computer Interaction, 8, 193-216.

Payne, S.J., Chesworth, L., & Hill, E. (1990). Animated demonstrations for exploratory learners. T J Watson Research Center, New York, IBM Research Report No.15714.

Perfetto, G.A., Bransford, J.D., & Franks, J.J. (1983). Constraints on access in a problem-solving context. Memory & Cognition, 11, 24-31.

Perfetto, G.A., Yearwood, A.A., Franks, J.J., & Bransford, J.D. (1987). Effects of generation on memory access. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 151-154.

Pierce, K.A., Duncan, M.K., Gholson, B., Ray, G.E., & Kamhi, A.G. (1993) Cognitive load, schema acquisition, and procedural adaptation in nonisomorphic analogical transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 66-74.

Pirolli, P. (1991). Effects of examples and their explanations in a lesson on recursion: A production system analysis. Cognition and Instruction, 8, 207-259.

Pirolli, P., & Anderson, J.R. (1985). The role of learning from examples in acquissition of recursive programming skills. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 240-272.

Pirolli, P., & Bielaczyk, K. (1989). Empirical Analyses of self-explanation and transfer in learning to program. In G.M. Olson & E.E. Smith (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 450-457). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Reed, S.K., & Bolstad, C. A. (1991). Use of examples and procedures in problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 753-766.

Robert, J.M. (1987). Learning a computer system by unassisted exploration. In H. Bullinger & B. Shackel (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction - Interact '87 (pp. 651-656). New York: Elsevier Science.

Rose, A.M. (1989). Acquisition and retention of skills. In G. MacMillan (Ed.), Applications of Human Performance Models to System Design. New York: Plenum Press.

Scandura, J.M. (1964). An analysis of expository and discovery modes of problem solving. Journal of Experimental Education, 33, 149-159.

Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3(4), 207-217.

Semb, G.B., & Ellis, J.A. (1994). Knowledge taught in school: What is remembered? Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 253-286.

Shneiderman, B. (1987). Designing the user interface. Reading: Addisson-Wesley.

Slamecka, N.J., & Graf, P. (1978). The generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 592-604.

Specht, L.B., & Sandlin, P.K. (1991). the differential effects of experiential learning activities and traditional lecture classes in accounting. Simulation & Gaming, 22(2), 196-210.

Steinberg, E.R. (1989). Cognition and learner control: A literature review, 1977-1988. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(4), 117-121.

Sutcliffe, A.G., & Old, A.C. (1987). Do users know they have user models? Some experiences in the practice of user modelling. In H. Bullinger & B.Shackel (Eds.), Human Computer Interaction - Interact '87 (pp.35-41), North Holland.

Sweller, J., Chandler, P., Tierney, P., & Cooper, M. (1990). Cognitive load as a factor in the structuring of technical material. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119(2), 176-192.

Sweller, J., & Cooper, G.A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition and Instruction, 2(1) 59-85.

Temple, Barker, & Sloane, Inc. (1990) The Bnefits of the Grapical User Interface: A Report on New Primary Research. Technical report published by Temple, Barker, & Sloan, Inc. Lexington, MA.

VanLehn, K. (1986). Arithmetic procedures are induced from examples. In J. Hiebert (Ed.), Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case of mathematics (pp. 130-180). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

VanLehn, K., Jones, R.M., & Chi, M.T.H. (1992). A model of the self-explanation effect. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2, 1-59.

Ward, M., & Sweller, J. (1990). Structuring effective worked examples. Cognition and Instruction, 7(1), 1-39.

Waterson, P., & O'Malley, C. (1992). Using animated demonstrations to teach graphics skills. In A. Monk, D. Diaper & M.D. Harrison (Eds.), Proceedings of HCI 92: People and Computers VII (pp. 463-474). York: Cambridge University Press.

Wendel, R., & Frese, M. (1987). Developing exploratory strategies in training: The general approach and a specific example for manual use. In H. Bullinger & B. Shackel (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction - Interact '87 (pp. 943-948). New York: Elsevier Science.

Williams, T.R., & Farkas, D.K. (1992). Minimalism reconsidered: Should we design documentation for exploratory learning. SIGCHI Bulletin, 24, 41-50.

Woolf, B. (1992). Hypermedia in education and training. In D. Kopec & R. B. Thompson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Knowledge-Based Systems for Teaching and Learning (pp. 97-109). New York: Ellis Horwood.